Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenç

Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenç www.phwiki.com

Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenç

Gopinath, Shilpa, Contributing Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques / Maputo Paul Jenkins Professor of Architecture in addition to Human Settlements Urban Studies, School of the Built Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh http://www.sbe.hw.ac.uk/staffprofiles/J/PaulJenkins.htm Research Professor in Architecture Edinburgh School of Architecture in addition to L in addition to scape Architecture http://www.esala.ac.uk/people/academics/pjenkins.html Feb 2010 Paul Jenkins, Research Professor in Architecture, eca / Professor of Architecture in addition to Human Settlements, HWU Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques / Maputo Introduction Sources of in as long as mation in addition to nature of underlying research Urbanisation in Sub-Saharan Africa in addition to Mozambique The scale, context in addition to nature of urbanisation The concept of in as long as mality Maputo: A brief historical overview of urban expansion in addition to l in addition to occupation Political economic as long as ces in addition to socio-cultural values Maputo: Recent trends in addition to new ways of underst in addition to ing the ‘urban’ Hiding from or imitating the state Implications as long as urban development Challenging embedded concepts of order in addition to disorder in urban space in addition to as long as m Feb 2010 Paul Jenkins, Research Professor in Architecture, eca / Professor of Architecture in addition to Human Settlements, HWU Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques / Maputo Sources of in as long as mation in addition to nature of underlying research Working professionally in Mozambique as city planner Maputo 1980-5 in addition to then at central government level (including with international agencies) 1985-1993 – latter period including social research Continued professional engagement in urban issues in Mozambique, including Maputo since on short-term basis ESRC funded project 2000-1 on emerging urban l in addition to markets in the city Current Danish Research Council funded project 2009-11 on ‘Home Space in African cities’, based in Maputo Continued wider research into the history of the city as well as current trends Personal engagement in Mozambican society from early 1980s to present Sources of in as long as mation are both as long as mal (‘professional’, ‘academic’) in addition to in as long as mal Academic engagement includes architecture, planning, anthropology in addition to urban history (physical in addition to social)

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Feb 2010 Paul Jenkins, Research Professor in Architecture, eca / Professor of Architecture in addition to Human Settlements, HWU Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques / Maputo Urbanisation in Sub-Saharan Africa: scale in addition to economic context Sub-Saharan Africa is the last global macro-region to begin to urbanise, a process which is well underway In 1950 SSA had 33 million urban residents = 4.5% world population In 2005 it had some 330 million urban residents = 11% world population In 2030 it is estimated to have 730 million urban residents = 15% world population This process is happening in quite unique context of high levels of general poverty High proportion of least developed countries Two decades of economic stagnation in addition to structural marginalisation, Some recent changes e.g. Chinese/Brazilian investment For more see Chapters 1 & 9 in Jenkins, Smith & Wang (2006) “Housing in addition to Planning in the Rapidly Urbanising World”, Routledge Feb 2010 Paul Jenkins, Research Professor in Architecture, eca / Professor of Architecture in addition to Human Settlements, HWU Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques / Maputo Urbanisation in Sub-Saharan Africa: nature Urban settlements of ancient origin, usually linked to exchange in addition to trade Fixed urban settlement rein as long as ced by European mercantilism (16th century on) in addition to later colonisation (late 19th century) Colonial control over urban settlement removed at independence leading to rapid rise in urban population through rural-urban migration (post 1950s) While in-migration still important, natural population growth in urban areas is generally now more significant Tendency to primacy in urban as long as m, however recent trends in urbanisation leading to proportional growth in secondary in addition to tertiary urban areas Increasing complexity of urban migratory trends, including international, circular in addition to intra-urban Many ‘not-urban, not-rural’ settlement as long as ms in addition to ‘straddling’ survival mechanisms developing due to limited economic absorption in urban economies Feb 2010 Paul Jenkins, Research Professor in Architecture, eca / Professor of Architecture in addition to Human Settlements, HWU Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques / Maputo The concept of urban in as long as mality This is predicated on: Limited ( in addition to often decreasing) as long as ms of ‘ as long as mal’ economic growth – in addition to lack of recognition of importance of urban-based economies in policy (including international organisations) Government decentralisation not being accompanied by resources in urban areas in addition to limited government capacity to regulate the ‘ as long as mal’ ‘In as long as mal settlements’ are now generally seen as ‘slums’ – is this a return of a puritanical attitude, or a different as long as m of anti-urban bias The majority of urban dwellers live in addition to work in situations of so-called ‘in as long as mality’ There is a need as long as a new attitude to the life-work conditions of the urban poor majority, one based on social legitimacy in addition to not some as long as m of idealised urban normality drawn from other places in addition to other times UN estimates SSA had 166 million ‘slum dwellers’ in 2001 (72% urban population) By 2015 this is estimated to double to 332 million The 146 million new slum dwellers in SSA will far outstrip UN goals (improve lives of 100 million slum dwellers worldwide)

Feb 2010 Paul Jenkins, Research Professor in Architecture, eca / Professor of Architecture in addition to Human Settlements, HWU Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques / Maputo Maputo: A brief historical overview of urban expansion in addition to l in addition to occupation: a story of political economic as long as ces in addition to socio-cultural values Early colonial period 1850-1915 Middle colonial period 1915-1955 Late colonial period 1955-1975 Early independent period 1975-1990 More recent independent period 1990-2010 Jenkins (2009) “African cities: competing claims on urban l in addition to ”, chapter in ‘African cities: competing claims on urban spaces’, Nugent & Locatelli (eds), Brill, Leiden Feb 2010 Paul Jenkins, Research Professor in Architecture, eca / Professor of Architecture in addition to Human Settlements, HWU Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques / Maputo Small permanent trading settlement consolidated with l in addition to leasing arrangements from Crown (1858). Large scale as long as eign l in addition to speculation in 1860s. Gold discovered in Transvaal 1870s, leading to rapid growth of port. Annexation of l in addition to to north with hut tax established 1882. Railway built from 1886 – 1895. First l in addition to register established 1886. Town raised to city status by Crown 1887. Indigenous l in addition to rights removed 1890, except in ‘reserves’ . Partition of Africa at Berlin Conference 1894/5 required consolidation of area of military control, which was exp in addition to ed to subordinate the indigenous (Nguni) Gaza state to north. Capital of colony moved to city 1895, first expansion plan 1896, state investment in major public works Maputo expansion: Early colonial period 1850-1915 Original European settlement 1876 plan, initial expansion plan 1878, final expansion plan 1903 Feb 2010 Paul Jenkins, Research Professor in Architecture, eca / Professor of Architecture in addition to Human Settlements, HWU Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques / Maputo Early 20th century. State bought back l in addition to holdings in northeast outside of previous boundary but some as long as eign speculators resisted – legal disputes lasted until mid 20th century. Slow physical development of planned settlement until tram installed 1920s Urban area exp in addition to ed in as long as mally to northwest with small colonial l in addition to concessions – used as long as in as long as mal African housing from late 1920s – northeast development blocked by l in addition to speculators Maputo expansion: Early colonial period 1850-1915 Maputo 1915, showing wider area to come within the l in addition to cadastre, incorporating previous areas of indigenous settlement, in as long as mal development in addition to l in addition to speculation

Feb 2010 Paul Jenkins, Research Professor in Architecture, eca / Professor of Architecture in addition to Human Settlements, HWU Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques / Maputo Middle 20th century. Colonial settlement schemes in addition to indigenous labour migration underpinned rapid urban expansion: as long as mer in ‘cement city’ with class in addition to racial division, in addition to latter in in as long as mal settlements, mostly renting l in addition to /housing from settler l in addition to owners (northwest). Housing scheme as long as ‘assimilados’ built 1940s During late 1940s industrial production started in addition to some new satellite settlements developed (e.g. Machava). New urban master plan prepared by 1952 – avoiding most northwest in as long as mal settlements but requiring expropriation or engagement with large as long as eign l in addition to owners to Northeast (to restrain new speculative development) Maputo expansion: Middle colonial period 1915-1955 1925 cadastre plan showing in as long as mal area (NW); 1952 area of speculator blockage (NE) in addition to 1952 urban plan Feb 2010 Paul Jenkins, Research Professor in Architecture, eca / Professor of Architecture in addition to Human Settlements, HWU Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques / Maputo Continued rapid demographic expansion with sponsored immigration in addition to limited effective control of inward rural migration. Formal development pushed upwards due to in as long as mal settlement barriers northwest in addition to slow resolution of northeast l in addition to disputes. Urban l in addition to registry area in Maputo extended significantly to north 1965 – 88% of 770 Ha in private freehold/leasehold, 85% held by 11 l in addition to owners Change of legislation on as long as eign inward investment led to late industrial boom, generally settled in new town to west (Matola) leapfrogging in as long as mal areas in addition to also due to l in addition to availability/cost. Associated sites in addition to services areas developed as long as indigenous work as long as ce in addition to change of legislation allowed indigenous urban l in addition to holding. 1970s – Belated attempt to control increasing in as long as mal settlements in Maputo with new Master Plan (1969-1972) in addition to new Metropolitan Urban Planning Authority – including new sites in addition to services developments in addition to improving services to in as long as mal settlements. Maputo expansion: Late colonial period 1955-1975 1972 master plan Feb 2010 Paul Jenkins, Research Professor in Architecture, eca / Professor of Architecture in addition to Human Settlements, HWU Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques / Maputo Maputo expansion: Early independent period 1975-90 widespread pent-up in-migration in addition to limited action (reactive/proactive) 1975-6 start of sites in addition to services in Maputo 1977-9 state action through UN supported exp in addition to ed sites & services (Machava), in addition to in as long as mal upgrading (Maxaquene) City council ‘basic urbanisation programme’ in urban periphery 1980-5 provides 10,400 new plots as long as lower income groups, but soon to collapse due to political clientelism 1989 Operacao Producao’ – failed to restrict urban in-migration, civil war has an increasing effect in southern region Massive in-migration in late 1980s, early 1990s due to war in addition to collapse of rural economy L in addition to occupation maps based on aerial photography

Feb 2010 Paul Jenkins, Research Professor in Architecture, eca / Professor of Architecture in addition to Human Settlements, HWU Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques / Maputo Maputo expansion: More recent independent period 1990-2010 In as long as mal settlement continuing to north of Matola within reach of road access (limited in interior) Densification of as long as mal l in addition to layouts in addition to In as long as mal settlements in Matola Formal sector speculation ties up all l in addition to around New motorway to South Africa New aluminium factory (with associated residential development) in province increasingly attracting in as long as mal settlement Mix of as long as mal sector speculation in addition to in as long as mal settlement into province In as long as mal settlement continuing on escarpment into neighbouring provincial district Marracuene Formal sector speculative l in addition to grabbing in addition to some layouts along main north road, in as long as mal settlements across municipal boundaries Mix of as long as mal layouts as long as middle class in addition to densifying in as long as mal settlement on coastal plain Speculation at Catembe to south of the bay in addition to lobbying as long as bridge to realise l in addition to values Feb 2010 Paul Jenkins, Research Professor in Architecture, eca / Professor of Architecture in addition to Human Settlements, HWU Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques / Maputo Maputo: Recent trends in addition to new ways of underst in addition to ing the ‘urban’ 1997-8 construction of new motorway to Witwatersr in addition to led to distant relocation of people to new housing area to northeast of city – this led to wider engagement in illegal l in addition to market 2000 study identified emerging l in addition to markets as major way to access l in addition to despite continued nationalised status Floods of 2000 led to major donor assistance in re-housing people – area available an extension of 1982 sites & service area to north Heightened sense of l in addition to values led to extensive ‘corrupt’ / non-regulated l in addition to access practices, which have now become the de facto norm as long as l in addition to development As recent research has shown, a strong tendency in this process is to ‘imitate the state’ in in as long as mal l in addition to development, as well as housing (Nielson 2009, 2010 ) Feb 2010 Paul Jenkins, Research Professor in Architecture, eca / Professor of Architecture in addition to Human Settlements, HWU Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques / Maputo In as long as mal continuation of ‘planned’ l in addition to development by ‘traditional’ l in addition to holders, city council officials in addition to local administrators as long as personal gain Core of the 2000-1 emergency housing area 1982 sites & service area, only effectively occupied by early1990s 1990s ad-hoc partially planned sites as long as teachers etc

Feb 2010 Paul Jenkins, Research Professor in Architecture, eca / Professor of Architecture in addition to Human Settlements, HWU Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques / Maputo The alternative strategy is more one of ‘hiding’ from the state Here traditional l in addition to holders sell of l in addition to around their own home spaces in areas less well accessed Feb 2010 Paul Jenkins, Research Professor in Architecture, eca / Professor of Architecture in addition to Human Settlements, HWU Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques / Maputo Maputo: Recent trends in addition to new ways of underst in addition to ing the ‘urban’ This current situation reflects both strong socio-cultural interests in addition to political economic as long as ces where the boundaries between the ‘ as long as mal’ in addition to ‘in as long as mal’ are kept fuzzy In this ‘grey area’ a range of new attitudes in addition to practices develop which are exploited by the poor as well as the rich, the weak as well as the powerful – albeit differentially the political in addition to economic elite have been speculating in l in addition to since the late 1980s, using the lack of legislation to access l in addition to through state allocation, in addition to later the new l in addition to legislation to consolidate their rights to this l in addition to – they occupy the best locations in addition to large areas the poor operate underneath the state as in as long as mally as possible, but aiming to avoid state interference by imitating the state’s norms, or ‘hiding’ from these – adapting socio-culture values to political in addition to economic realities the emerging middle class has until recently been relatively excluded from this process, but is now acting under new planning legislation to strengthen their l in addition to access – this potentially threatens lower-income in as long as mal access, especially where this is not ‘planned’ – which is the majority of the city area Feb 2010 Paul Jenkins, Research Professor in Architecture, eca / Professor of Architecture in addition to Human Settlements, HWU Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques / Maputo Implications as long as urban development 1 Links between social order in addition to physical order in space in addition to as long as m are historic but varied – however these became dominant in ‘Western’ thought from the Enlightenment in addition to are deeply embedded within the discourse of urban planning These are largely based on positivist epistemologies that define abstract norms in addition to apply these as a means of control – this process being led by state-licenced expertise While this was to some extent possible in a world where urban space in addition to as long as m was largely driven by state-dominated political economies (whether capitalist or communist, colonial or post-colonial), it is proving impossible in the urban explosions of the most recent as long as m of globalisation in addition to demographic change The resources needed to continue to plan rapid urban growth in many parts of the world are not available in the current political economies in addition to hence there is limited physical control by the state – what does this mean as long as ‘ordered’ urban development

Feb 2010 Paul Jenkins, Research Professor in Architecture, eca / Professor of Architecture in addition to Human Settlements, HWU Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques / Maputo Implications as long as urban development 2 In this context the binary of what is ‘ as long as mal’ in addition to ‘in as long as mal’ often becomes a way of the powerful exploiting the majority As illustrated in Maputo, this produces various approaches by the poor majority to develop urban areas either hidden from, or reflecting, state activity – as this is usually exploitative to the benefit of elites Any attempts to ‘plan’ the city here needs to underst in addition to the realpolitik of the political economy in addition to emerging hybrid socio-cultural attitudes to urban l in addition to , in addition to not necessarily attempt to implant some as long as m of ‘rational planned order‘ Such an approach to what is valid as ‘urban’ in this context needs to be inductively assessed in addition to not deductively based on imported norms in addition to values of the ‘urban’ To function, this as long as m of ‘planning’ thus needs to be grounded in de facto culturally embedded perceptions in addition to socially constructed as long as ms of interaction, challenging the state’s de jure dominance of l in addition to in addition to environmental resource Feb 2010 Paul Jenkins, Research Professor in Architecture, eca / Professor of Architecture in addition to Human Settlements, HWU Changing attitudes to l in addition to in the (exp in addition to ing) urban area of Xilunguine / Lourenço Marques / Maputo Key sources: Costa (2007) “O preco da sombra: Sobrevivencia e reproducao social entre familias de Maputo” Livros Horizonte, Lisbon Jenkins (2001) “Emerging l in addition to markets as long as housing in Mozambique: the impact on the poor in addition to alternatives to improve l in addition to access in addition to urban development – an action research project in peri-urban Maputo”, Edinburgh College of Art/Heriot-Watt University, School of Planning & Housing, Research Paper No. 75 Jenkins (2004) “Querying the concepts of as long as mal in addition to in as long as mal in l in addition to access in developing world – case of Maputo”, chapter in ‘The as long as mal in addition to in as long as mal city – what happens at the interface’, Vaa & Hansen (eds), Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala Jenkins (2006) “The image of the city in Mozambique”, chapter in ‘African urban economies: viability, vitality or vitiation of major cities in East in addition to Southern Africa’, Bryceson & Potts (eds), Palgrave, Basingstoke Jenkins (2009) “African cities: competing claims on urban l in addition to ”, chapter in ‘African cities: competing claims on urban spaces’, Nugent & Locatelli (eds), Brill, Leiden Jenkins, Smith & Wang (2006) “Housing in addition to planning in the rapidly urbanising world”, Routledge, Ox as long as d Nielsen (2008) “In the vicinity of the state: House construction, personhood, in addition to the state in Maputo, Mozambique”, PhD: Institute of Anthropology, University of Copenhagen Nielsen (2010 as long as thcoming) “Regulating reciprocal distances: House construction projects as inverse governmentality in Maputo, Mozambique”, chapter in ‘Markets as long as peace’, Buur & Rodgers (eds), Palgrave, Basingstoke

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