Changing Perspectives on Celtic Bilingual Education

Changing Perspectives on Celtic Bilingual Education

Changing Perspectives on Celtic Bilingual Education

Price, Jennifer, Managing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Changing Perspectives on Celtic Bilingual Education Colin Baker Bangor University Overview Introduction Four Perspectives on Bilingual Education A Contemporary View of Bilingual Education Child-Centred Bilingual Education Conclusion Introduction ‘Bilingual Education’ is ambiguous; To establish common ground: ‘where some, most or all curriculum content is learnt through more than one language’; Bilingual has increasingly gained positive associations.

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Four Perspectives on Bilingual Education Bilingual Education (BE) cannot be understood from just an educational perspective. It requires multidisciplinary perspectives: 1. Language Planning Perspective where BE is often an essential production line as long as new speakers when there is a shortfall in family language reproduction. But there can be over-optimism about the impact of schools on producing language communities in addition to ‘new speakers’. 2. Political Perspective Behind Bilingual Education are debates about national identity, dominance in addition to control by elites in addition to counter elites, power relationships, political in addition to social cohesion, unity in addition to diversity. This relates to both minority language education in addition to where there are ‘immigrant’ languages. 3. An Economic Perspective on Bilingual Education is also valuable. Example: Nadine Dutcher’s (1995, 2004) research as long as the World Bank suggests that Bilingual Education is economically cost-efficient by providing higher levels of achievement in fewer years of study; lower drop-out rates; in addition to creates a more skilled work as long as ce in addition to less unemployment.

4. The Pedagogical Perspective on Bilingual Education typically begins with a typology: immersion; heritage language; dual language; etc. Typologies have limitations: – static, many variations within models; – not about processes nor provide explanations; – essentialist in addition to reductionist in addition to do not capture variety (immigrant, indigenous, immersion) that can occur within one classroom; It is more valuable to engage the key language issues in Bilingual Education on which pedagogic decisions are needed. Ten Language Issues in Bilingual Education 1. Language(s) of children in the classroom – majority – indigenous minority – bilinguals from birth – international languages A class may contain a mixture. 2. Language balance of the intake (e.g. majority / minority language): strategic or laissez-faire 3. Language allocation in content teaching (e.g. science, mathematics). – developmental strategies across grades – hidden in addition to non-curriculum use of languages – attitude to codeswitching in addition to translation – translanguaging 4. Language profile of ALL the staff (competence, use, attitude) 5. Language of curriculum resources especially electronic (e.g. ICT, e-learning, WWW) 6. Language aims, targets, outcomes: – bilingualism – multilingualism – biliteracy – employability – identity – community integration – overall achievement of children Bilingual Education is no guarantee of effective schooling. Type of language learnt at school is often academic – not vernacular.

7. Effectiveness of Bilingual Education Research on Canadian Immersion in addition to US Dual Language schools used to market to parents, public in addition to politicians. The value of Bilingual Education is not self-evident. We have to market in addition to persuade. 8. Defining the role of English in addition to other languages (e.g. M in addition to arin, French) 9. The Role of Parents in addition to Community – Cultural ‘Funds of Knowledge’ – language partners – homework 10. Teacher training, extended professional development in addition to teacher supply are foundational. Language planning, political, economic in addition to pedagogic perspectives on bilingual education do not capture the humanist European tradition of child-centeredness in education that is our historical legacy, e.g. from Comenius, John Locke, Rousseau, Pestalozzi , Froebel, Maria Montessori. These four perspectives (language planning, political, economic, pedagogic) are about systems. We also need a fifth – a child-centred perspective.

Communication: – ‘Two languages: Twice the Choice’ – high levels of competence in both languages – bridging between language generations, groups in addition to crossing language borders – increased social capital. Biliteracy / Multiliteracies: – accessing different literatures, world-views, ways of thinking in addition to acting enshrined in heritage in addition to modern literacies. 5th Perspective: The Potential Advantages as long as Children from Celtic Bilingual Education 3. Biculturalism / Multiculturalism: – accessing more varied accumulated meanings in addition to widening underst in addition to ings as long as different languages 4. Cognitive benefits: – IQ, divergent in addition to creative thinking – sensitivity in communication, metalinguistic advantages 5. Character benefits: – self esteem: being proud of switching languages – compare to olden days of language repression – identity – tolerance

6. Curriculum achievement: – solid research from U.S. on Dual Language Schools in addition to Canadian immersion – a growing European literature on the superior per as long as mance of those in bilingual education 7. Learning a third or fourth language: – bilinguals appear to have advantages in new language learning 8. Economic in addition to Employment advantages: – increasing dem in addition to as long as bilinguals / multilinguals wherever there is a customer interface. Sometimes due to government policy, sometimes to profit. Sometimes ‘essential’, other times ‘valued added’ e.g. translation in addition to interpretation. Conclusion US Dual Language Schools in addition to particularly Canadian Immersion Education have the most prolific literature showing bilingual education is typically preferable to monolingual education. Bilingual education st in addition to s the chance of giving a new generation of Celtic children child-centred advantages:

Potential Advantages as long as Celtic Children from Bilingual Education ommunication ultural urriculum ognitive haracter ash There as long as e, is any child not educated bilingually in Scotl in addition to being disadvantaged Foundations of Bilingual Education in addition to Bilingualism ISBN:9781847693556 Pub Date: 2011 (5th edition) A Parents’ in addition to Teachers’ Guide to Bilingualism ISBN: 9781847690005 Pub Date: 2007 Booklist:

Price, Jennifer Sexuality, Reproduction & Menopause Managing Editor

Price, Jennifer Managing Editor

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