Chapter 1: A Physics Toolkit PHYSICS Principles in addition to Problems BIG IDEA Physicists

Chapter 1: A Physics Toolkit PHYSICS Principles in addition to Problems BIG IDEA Physicists www.phwiki.com

Chapter 1: A Physics Toolkit PHYSICS Principles in addition to Problems BIG IDEA Physicists

Macias, Chris, Food and Wine Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 1: A Physics Toolkit PHYSICS Principles in addition to Problems BIG IDEA Physicists use scientific methods to investigate energy in addition to matter. CHAPTER1 A Physics Toolkit Section 1.1 Methods of Science Section 1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics Section 1.3 Measurement Section 1.4 Graphing Data CHAPTER1 Table Of Contents Click a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Exit

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Essential Questions What are the characteristics of scientific methods Why do scientists use models What is the difference between a scientific theory in addition to a scientific law What are some limitations of science MAIN IDEA Scientific investigations do not always proceed with identical steps but do contain similar methods. SECTION1.1 Methods of Science New Vocabulary Physics Scientific methods Hypothesis Review Vocabulary Control the st in addition to ard by which test results in an experiment can be compared. Model Scientific theory Scientific law SECTION1.1 Methods of Science Physics is a branch of science that involves the study of the physical world: energy, matter, in addition to how they are related. Learning physics will help you to underst in addition to the physical world. What is Physics SECTION1.1 Methods of Science

Although physicists do not always follow a rigid set of steps, investigations often follow similar patterns called scientific methods. Depending on the particular investigation, a scientist might add new steps, repeat some steps or skip steps altogether. Scientific Methods SECTION1.1 Methods of Science Many investigations begin when someone observes an event in nature in addition to wonders why or how it occurs. The question of “why” or “how” is the problem. Many questions have been asked throughout history: why objects fall to Earth, what causes day in addition to night, how to generate electricity Often the investigation into one problem may lead to more questions in addition to more investigations. Scientific Methods (cont.) SECTION1.1 Methods of Science Researching already known in as long as mation about a problem, helps to fine-tune the question in addition to as long as m it into a hypothesis. Hypothesis is a possible explanation as long as a problem using what you know in addition to have observed. Scientific Methods (cont.) SECTION1.1 Methods of Science

Hypotheses can be tested by different means: Observations Models Experiments Test the effect of one thing on another, using a control. Scientific Methods (cont.) SECTION1.1 Methods of Science An important part of every investigation includes recording observations in addition to organizing data into easy-to-read tables in addition to graphs. Based on the analysis of the data, the next step is to decide whether the hypothesis is supported. If supported, the data must be reproducible many times. If not supported, the hypothesis must be reconsidered. Scientific Methods (cont.) SECTION1.1 Methods of Science Sometimes, scientists cannot see everything they are testing. They might be observing an object that is too large or too small, a process that takes too much time to see completely, or a material that is hazardous. A model is a representation of an idea, event, structure, or object that helps people better underst in addition to it. Models SECTION1.1 Methods of Science

A scientific theory is an explanation of things or events based on knowledge gained from many observations in addition to investigations. This is not a hypothesis, this is what a hypothesis becomes after numerous trials of data supporting the hypothesis. A theory is never permanent, it can change as new data in addition to in as long as mation becomes available. Scientific Theories in addition to Laws SECTION1.1 Methods of Science A scientific law is a statement about what happens in nature in addition to seems to be true all the time. Laws tell you what will happen under certain conditions, but they do not explain why or how something happens. Ex. Gravity The law of gravity states that any one mass will attract another mass. There are many theories proposed to explain how the law of gravity works. Scientific Theories in addition to Laws (cont.) SECTION1.1 Methods of Science Science cannot explain or solve every question. A scientific question must be testable in addition to verifiable. Questions about opinions, values or emotions are not scientific because they cannot be tested. The Limitations of Science SECTION1.1 Methods of Science

The similar patterns used, by all branches of science, in an investigation are called Hypotheses Scientific theories Scientific methods Scientific laws SECTION1.1 Section Check “In a closed-system, mass is always conserved” is an example of which of the following Scientific law Scientific theory Hypothesis Model SECTION1.1 Section Check

MAIN IDEA We use math to express concepts in physics. Essential Questions Why do scientists use the metric system How can dimensional analysis help evaluate answers What are significant figures SECTION1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics Review Vocabulary SI International System of Units – the improved, universally accepted version of the metric system that is based on multiples of ten. New Vocabulary Dimensional analysis Significant figures SECTION1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics Physicists often use the language of mathematics. Physicists rely on theories in addition to experiments with numerical results to support their conclusions. Mathematics in Physics SECTION1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics

In order to communicate results that everyone can underst in addition to , the worldwide scientific community uses an adaptation of the metric system called Systeme International d’Unites or SI. The SI system of measurement uses seven base quantities. SI Units SECTION1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics The base quantities were originally defined in terms of direct measurements. Other units, called derived units, are created by combining the base units in various ways. The SI system is regulated by the International Bureau of Weights in addition to Measures in Sèvres, France. This bureau in addition to the National Institute of Science in addition to Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryl in addition to , keep the st in addition to ards of length, time, in addition to mass against which our metersticks, clocks, in addition to balances are calibrated. SI Units (cont.) SECTION1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics Another feature in the SI system is the ease of converting units. To convert between units, multiply or divide by the appropriate power of 10. Prefixes are used to change SI base units to powers of 10. SECTION1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics SI Units (cont.)

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Dimensional Analysis You will often need to use different versions of a as long as mula, or use a string of as long as mulas, to solve a physics problem. To check that you have set up a problem correctly, write the equation or set of equations you plan to use with the appropriate units. SECTION1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics Be as long as e per as long as ming calculations, check that the answer will be in the expected units. For example, if you are finding a speed in addition to you see that your answer will be measured in s/m, you know you have made an error in setting up the problem. This method of treating the units as algebraic quantities, which can be cancelled, is called dimensional analysis. Dimensional Analysis (cont.) SECTION1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics Dimensional analysis is also used in choosing conversion factors. A conversion factor is a multiplier equal to 1. For example, because 1 kg = 1000 g, you can construct the following conversion factors: SECTION1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics Dimensional Analysis (cont.)

Choose a conversion factor that will make the units cancel, leaving the answer in the correct units. For example, to convert 1.34 kg of iron ore to grams, do as shown below: SECTION1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics Dimensional Analysis (cont.) A meterstick is used to measure a pen in addition to you find the end of the pen is in between 138 in addition to 139mm. You estimate that the pen is two-tenths of a millimeter past the 138 mark in addition to record the measurement as 138.2mm. This measurement has four valid digits: three you are sure of, in addition to one you estimated. The valid digits in a measurement are called significant figures. However, the last digit given as long as any measurement is the uncertain digit. SECTION1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics Significant Figures Significant Figures (cont.) All nonzero digits in a measurement are significant, but not all zeros are significant. Consider a measurement such as 0.0860 m. Here the first two zeros serve only to locate the decimal point in addition to are not significant. The last zero, however, is the estimated digit in addition to is significant. SECTION1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics

Length of a Spring as long as Different Masses (2) A Physics Toolkit CHAPTER1 Chapter Resources Graph Indicating a Quadratic, or Parabolic, Relationship A Physics Toolkit CHAPTER1 Chapter Resources Graph Showing the Inverse Relationship Between Resistance in addition to Current A Physics Toolkit CHAPTER1 Chapter Resources

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