# Chapter 1: A Physics Toolkit PHYSICS Principles in addition to Problems BIG IDEA Physicists

## Chapter 1: A Physics Toolkit PHYSICS Principles in addition to Problems BIG IDEA Physicists

Macias, Chris, Food and Wine Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 1: A Physics Toolkit PHYSICS Principles in addition to Problems BIG IDEA Physicists use scientific methods to investigate energy in addition to matter. CHAPTER1 A Physics Toolkit Section 1.1 Methods of Science Section 1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics Section 1.3 Measurement Section 1.4 Graphing Data CHAPTER1 Table Of Contents Click a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Exit

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Essential Questions What are the characteristics of scientific methods Why do scientists use models What is the difference between a scientific theory in addition to a scientific law What are some limitations of science MAIN IDEA Scientific investigations do not always proceed with identical steps but do contain similar methods. SECTION1.1 Methods of Science New Vocabulary Physics Scientific methods Hypothesis Review Vocabulary Control the st in addition to ard by which test results in an experiment can be compared. Model Scientific theory Scientific law SECTION1.1 Methods of Science Physics is a branch of science that involves the study of the physical world: energy, matter, in addition to how they are related. Learning physics will help you to underst in addition to the physical world. What is Physics SECTION1.1 Methods of Science

Hypotheses can be tested by different means: Observations Models Experiments Test the effect of one thing on another, using a control. Scientific Methods (cont.) SECTION1.1 Methods of Science An important part of every investigation includes recording observations in addition to organizing data into easy-to-read tables in addition to graphs. Based on the analysis of the data, the next step is to decide whether the hypothesis is supported. If supported, the data must be reproducible many times. If not supported, the hypothesis must be reconsidered. Scientific Methods (cont.) SECTION1.1 Methods of Science Sometimes, scientists cannot see everything they are testing. They might be observing an object that is too large or too small, a process that takes too much time to see completely, or a material that is hazardous. A model is a representation of an idea, event, structure, or object that helps people better underst in addition to it. Models SECTION1.1 Methods of Science

A scientific theory is an explanation of things or events based on knowledge gained from many observations in addition to investigations. This is not a hypothesis, this is what a hypothesis becomes after numerous trials of data supporting the hypothesis. A theory is never permanent, it can change as new data in addition to in as long as mation becomes available. Scientific Theories in addition to Laws SECTION1.1 Methods of Science A scientific law is a statement about what happens in nature in addition to seems to be true all the time. Laws tell you what will happen under certain conditions, but they do not explain why or how something happens. Ex. Gravity The law of gravity states that any one mass will attract another mass. There are many theories proposed to explain how the law of gravity works. Scientific Theories in addition to Laws (cont.) SECTION1.1 Methods of Science Science cannot explain or solve every question. A scientific question must be testable in addition to verifiable. Questions about opinions, values or emotions are not scientific because they cannot be tested. The Limitations of Science SECTION1.1 Methods of Science

The similar patterns used, by all branches of science, in an investigation are called Hypotheses Scientific theories Scientific methods Scientific laws SECTION1.1 Section Check In a closed-system, mass is always conserved is an example of which of the following Scientific law Scientific theory Hypothesis Model SECTION1.1 Section Check

MAIN IDEA We use math to express concepts in physics. Essential Questions Why do scientists use the metric system How can dimensional analysis help evaluate answers What are significant figures SECTION1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics Review Vocabulary SI International System of Units  the improved, universally accepted version of the metric system that is based on multiples of ten. New Vocabulary Dimensional analysis Significant figures SECTION1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics Physicists often use the language of mathematics. Physicists rely on theories in addition to experiments with numerical results to support their conclusions. Mathematics in Physics SECTION1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics

Dimensional Analysis You will often need to use different versions of a as long as mula, or use a string of as long as mulas, to solve a physics problem. To check that you have set up a problem correctly, write the equation or set of equations you plan to use with the appropriate units. SECTION1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics Be as long as e per as long as ming calculations, check that the answer will be in the expected units. For example, if you are finding a speed in addition to you see that your answer will be measured in s/m, you know you have made an error in setting up the problem. This method of treating the units as algebraic quantities, which can be cancelled, is called dimensional analysis. Dimensional Analysis (cont.) SECTION1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics Dimensional analysis is also used in choosing conversion factors. A conversion factor is a multiplier equal to 1. For example, because 1 kg = 1000 g, you can construct the following conversion factors: SECTION1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics Dimensional Analysis (cont.)

Choose a conversion factor that will make the units cancel, leaving the answer in the correct units. For example, to convert 1.34 kg of iron ore to grams, do as shown below: SECTION1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics Dimensional Analysis (cont.) A meterstick is used to measure a pen in addition to you find the end of the pen is in between 138 in addition to 139mm. You estimate that the pen is two-tenths of a millimeter past the 138 mark in addition to record the measurement as 138.2mm. This measurement has four valid digits: three you are sure of, in addition to one you estimated. The valid digits in a measurement are called significant figures. However, the last digit given as long as any measurement is the uncertain digit. SECTION1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics Significant Figures Significant Figures (cont.) All nonzero digits in a measurement are significant, but not all zeros are significant. Consider a measurement such as 0.0860 m. Here the first two zeros serve only to locate the decimal point in addition to are not significant. The last zero, however, is the estimated digit in addition to is significant. SECTION1.2 Mathematics in addition to Physics

Length of a Spring as long as Different Masses (2) A Physics Toolkit CHAPTER1 Chapter Resources Graph Indicating a Quadratic, or Parabolic, Relationship A Physics Toolkit CHAPTER1 Chapter Resources Graph Showing the Inverse Relationship Between Resistance in addition to Current A Physics Toolkit CHAPTER1 Chapter Resources

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