Chapter 1 Chemistry: Methods in addition to Measurement Denniston Topping Caret 5th Edition

Chapter 1 Chemistry: Methods in addition to Measurement Denniston Topping Caret 5th Edition www.phwiki.com

Chapter 1 Chemistry: Methods in addition to Measurement Denniston Topping Caret 5th Edition

Mercier, Lisa, Founder has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 1 Chemistry: Methods in addition to Measurement Denniston Topping Caret 5th Edition Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required as long as reproduction or display. 1.1 The Discovery Process Chemistry – The study of matter Matter – Anything that has mass in addition to occupies space A table A piece paper What about air Yes, it is matter 1.1 The Discovery Process Chemistry: the study of matter its chemical in addition to physical properties the chemical in addition to physical changes it undergoes the energy changes that accompany those processes Energy – the ability to do work to accomplish some change

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1.1 The Discovery Process MAJOR AREAS OF CHEMISTRY Biochemistry – the study of life at the molecular level Organic chemistry – the study of matter containing carbon in addition to hydrogen Inorganic chemistry – the study of matter containing elements, not organic Analytic chemistry – analyze matter to determine identity in addition to composition 1.1 The Discovery Process Physical chemistry – attempts to explain the way matter behaves CHEMISTRY medical practitioners pharmaceutical industry as long as ensic sciences food science public health 1.1 The Discovery Process THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD The scientific method – a systematic approach to the discovery of new in as long as mation Characteristics of the scientific process Observation Formulation of a question Pattern recognition Developing theories Experimentation Summarizing in as long as mation

1.1 The Discovery Process Models in Chemistry To aid in underst in addition to ing of a chemical unit or system a model is often used good models are based on everyday experience Ball in addition to stick methane model color code balls sticks show attractive as long as ces holding atoms together 1.1 The Discovery Process 1.2 Matter in addition to Properties Properties – characteristics of matter chemical vs. physical Three states of matter 1. gas – particles widely separated, no definite shape or volume solid 2. liquid – particles closer together, definite volume but no definite shape 3. solid – particles are very close together, define shape in addition to definite volume

Three States of Water (a) Solid (b) Liquid (c) Gas Comparison of the Three Physical States 1.2 Matter in addition to Properties 1.2 Matter in addition to Properties Physical property – is observed without changing the composition or identity of a substance Physical change – produces a recognizable difference in the appearance of a substance without causing any change in its composition or identity conversion from one physical state to another melting an ice cube

Separation by Physical Properties Magnetic iron is separated from other nonmagnetic substances, such as s in addition to . This property is used as a large-scale process in the recycling industry. 1.2 Matter in addition to Properties Chemical property – result in a change in composition in addition to can be observed only through a chemical reaction Chemical reaction (chemical change) – a process of rearranging, removing, replacing, or adding atoms to produce new substances hydrogen + oxygen water reactants products 1.2 Matter in addition to Properties Classify the following as either a chemical or physical property: Color Flammability Hardness Odor Taste

1.2 Matter in addition to Properties Classify the following as either a chemical or physical change: Boiling water becomes steam Butter turns rancid Burning of wood Mountain snow pack melting in spring Decay of leaves in winter Intensive properties – a property of matter that is independent of the quantity of the substance Density Specific gravity Extensive properties – a property of matter that depends on the quantity of the substance Mass Volume 1.2 Matter in addition to Properties Classification of Matter 1.2 Matter in addition to Properties Pure substance – a substance that has only one component Mixture – a combination of two or more pure substances in which each substance retains its own identity, not undergoing a chemical reaction

Classification of Matter 1.2 Matter in addition to Properties Element – a pure substance that cannot be changed into a simpler as long as m of matter by any chemical reaction Compound – a substance resulting from the combination of two or more elements in a definite, reproducible way, in a fixed ratio Classification of Matter 1.2 Matter in addition to Properties Mixture – a combination of two or more pure substances in which each substance retains its own identity Homogeneous – uni as long as m composition, particles well mixed, thoroughly intermingled Heterogeneous – nonuni as long as m composition, r in addition to om placement Classes of Matter 1.2 Matter in addition to Properties

1.3 Measurement in Chemistry Data, Results, in addition to Units Data – each piece is an individual result of a single measurement or observation mass of a sample temperature of a solution Results – the outcome of the experiment Data in addition to results may be identical, however usually related data are combined to generate a result Units – the basic quantity of mass, volume or whatever quantity is being measured A measurement is useless without its units English in addition to Metric Units English system – a collection of functionally unrelated units Difficult to convert from one unit to another 1 foot = 12 inches = 0.33 yard = 1/5280 miles Metric System – composed of a set of units that are related to each other decimally, systematic Units relate by powers of tens 1 meter = 10 decimeters = 100 centimeters = 1000 millimeters 1.3 Measurement in Chemistry 1.3 Measurement in Chemistry Basic Units of the Metric System Mass gram g Length meter m Volume liter L Basic units are the units of a quantity without any metric prefix

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1.3 Measurement in Chemistry 1.3 Measurement in Chemistry UNIT CONVERSION You must be able to convert between units within the metric system between the English system in addition to metric system The method used as long as conversion is called the Factor-Label Method or Dimensional Analysis !!!!!!!!!!! VERY IMPORTANT !!!!!!!!!!! 1.3 Measurement in Chemistry Let your units do the work as long as you by simply memorizing connections between units. For example: How many donuts are in one dozen We say: “Twelve donuts are in a dozen.” Or: 12 donuts = 1 dozen donuts What does any number divided by itself equal ONE!

1.3 Measurement in Chemistry This fraction is called a unit factor What does any number times one equal That number Multiplication by a unit factor does not change the amount – only the unit We use these two mathematical facts to use the factor label method a number divided by itself = 1 any number times one gives that number back Example: How many donuts are in 3.5 dozen You can probably do this in your head but try it using the Factor-Label Method. 1.3 Measurement in Chemistry 1.3 Measurement in Chemistry Start with the given in as long as mation 3.5 dozen Then set up your unit factor See that the units cancel Then multiply in addition to divide all numbers = 42 donuts

Specific Gravity Values of density are often related to a st in addition to ard Specific gravity – the ratio of the density of the object in question to the density of pure water at 4oC Specific gravity is a unitless term because the 2 units cancel Often the health industry uses specific gravity to test urine in addition to blood samples 1.5 Experimental Quantities

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