CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Planet “Earth” Overview The world ocean is the most pr

CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Planet “Earth” Overview The world ocean is the most pr

CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Planet “Earth” Overview The world ocean is the most pr

Campbell, Deanna, Operations Manager;Traffic Director has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Planet “Earth” Overview The world ocean is the most prominent feature on Earth. Oceans cover 70.8% of Earth’s surface. The origin in addition to development of life on Earth is connected to the ocean. The oceans have a long history on Earth. Earth’s Oceans Earth has one ocean. It is divided into four principle oceans, in addition to one other. Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Arctic Ocean Southern, or Antarctic Ocean

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Ocean Size in addition to Depth Earth’s Oceans Pacific Ocean World’s largest ocean Accounts as long as more than half of Earth’s ocean space World’s deepest ocean Earth’s largest geographic feature Named in 1520 by Ferdin in addition to Magellan Earth’s Oceans Atlantic Ocean Half the size of the Pacific Ocean Shallower than the Pacific Ocean Separates the Old World from the New World Indian Ocean Smaller than the Atlantic Ocean Similar depth as the Atlantic Ocean Primarily in the Southern Hemisphere

Earth’s Oceans Arctic Ocean Seven percent the size of the Pacific Ocean Shallowest world ocean Permanent layer of sea ice a few meters thick Southern Ocean or Antarctic Ocean Circumnavigates Antarctica Is really the parts of the Pacific, Atlantic, in addition to Indian Oceans that lie south of 50° S latitude The Seven Seas Smaller in addition to shallower than oceans Salt water Usually enclosed by l in addition to Sargasso Sea defined by surrounding ocean currents Directly connected to the ocean The Seven Seas Be as long as e the 15th Century, Europeans considered the seven seas to be the following: Red Sea Mediterranean Sea Persian Gulf Black Sea Adriatic Sea Caspian Sea Indian Ocean

Comparing Oceans to Continents Average ocean depth is 3729 meters (12,234 feet) Average continental elevation is 840 meters (2756 feet) Deepest ocean trench is the Mariana Trench at 11,022 meters (36,161 feet) Highest continental mountain is Mt. Everest at 8850 meters (29,935 feet) Early Exploration of the Oceans Early “explorers” used boats to seek new fishing grounds as long as food. The ocean facilitated trade in addition to interaction between cultures. Pacific Navigators The peopling of the Pacific Isl in addition to s required extensive travel in open boats in addition to exceptional navigation skills. It was difficult because isl in addition to s are widely scattered.

Pacific People No written records exist of Pacific human history be as long as e the 16th Century. Archeological evidence suggests isl in addition to occupation by people from New Guinea as early as 4000–5000 B.C. Thor Heyerdahl sailed on a balsa raft – the Kon Tiki – to demonstrate migration of South Americans to Pacific Ocean isl in addition to s. European Navigators Phoenecians – first from Western Hemisphere to develop navigation arts Navigated circa 2000 B.C. Explored Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, in addition to Indian Ocean First circumnavigation of Africa Reached the British Isles European Navigators Greek Pytheas Sailed northward using a simple method to determine latitude in 325 B.C. Navigated using the North Star Eratosthenes determined Earth’s circumference fairly accurately.

Europeans Herodotus produced inaccurate world map around 450 B.C. Claudius Ptolomy produced fairly accurate world map around 150 A.D. Erroneously updated Eratosthenes’ original circumference estimation, later causing Christopher Columbus to believe he had reached Asia The Middle Ages Arabs dominant navigators in the Mediterranean Sea Traded extensively with East Africa, India, in addition to Southeast Asia Learned to use Indian Ocean monsoon winds as long as travel The Middle Ages Vikings explored North Atlantic Ocean Settled Icel in addition to in addition to Greenl in addition to in 9th in addition to 10th centuries A.D. Leif Eriksson designated part of eastern Canada Vinl in addition to (now Newfoundl in addition to ) in 995 A.D. Greenl in addition to , Vinl in addition to settlements ab in addition to oned by 1450 A.D. due to climatic cooling

Viking Routes in addition to Colonies The Age of Discovery in Europe 1492–1522 Search as long as new Eastern trade routes by sea Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal sought trade routes around Africa. Europeans explore North in addition to South America Christopher Columbus was financed by the Spanish to find new trade routes to Asia. Englishman John Cabot arrived in northeast North America in 1497. The Age of Discovery in Europe 1492–1522 Spaniard Ferdin in addition to Magellan circumnavigated the globe. Was killed on a Pacific Isl in addition to in 1521 Juan Sebastian del Caño completed the circumnavigation in 1522. Voyages paved the way as long as the Spanish to take gold from the Incas in addition to Mayas. Spain’s maritime dominance ended when Engl in addition to defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588.

Voyages of Columbus in addition to Magellan Voyaging as long as Science The English wanted to retain maritime superiority. Captain James Cook (1728 – 1779) undertook three scientific voyages. Ships HMS Endeavour, Resolution, Adventure Mapped many isl in addition to s in Pacific Systematically measured ocean characteristics Marine chronograph (longitude) Cook’s Voyages

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Oceanography Continues More high-technology tools available today Sonar Robotics Computers Satellites Nature of Scientific Inquiry Natural phenomena governed by physical processes Physical processes similar today as in the past Scientists discover these processes in addition to make predictions Called the scientific method The Scientific Method

Theories in addition to Truth Science never reaches absolute truth. Truth is probable in addition to based on available observations. New observations yield scientific progress. In reality, scientists have no as long as mal method. Formation of Earth in addition to the Solar System Nebular hypothesis – all bodies in the solar system as long as med from nebula Nebula = cloud of gases in addition to space dust Mainly hydrogen in addition to helium Nebular Hypothesis Gravity concentrates material at center of cloud (Sun) Protoplanets as long as m from smaller concentrations of matter (eddies)

Radioactive Decay Geologic Time Scale End of CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Planet “Earth”

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