Chapter 1 Measurement in addition to Problem Solving
Barrera, Sandra, Features Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outline Chapter 1 College Physics, 7th Edition Wilson / Buffa / Lou Chapter 1 Measurement in addition to Problem Solving © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Units of Chapter 1 Why in addition to How We Measure SI Units of Length, Mass, in addition to Time More about the Metric System Unit Analysis Unit Conversions Significant Figures Problem Solving © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
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1.1 Why in addition to How We Measure Physics attempts to describe nature in an objective way through measurement. Measurements are expressed in units; officially accepted units are called st in addition to ard units. Major systems of units: Metric British (used by the U.S., but no longer by the British!) © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 1.2 SI Units of Length, Mass, in addition to Time Length, mass, in addition to time are fundamental quantities; combinations of them will as long as m all the units we will use through Chapter 14. In this text, we will be using the SI system of units, which is based on the metric system. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 1.2 SI Units of Length, Mass, in addition to Time SI unit of length: the meter. The original definition is on the left, the modern one is on the right. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
1.2 SI Units of Length, Mass, in addition to Time SI unit of mass: the kilogram Originally, the kilogram was the mass of 0.10 m3 of water. Now, the st in addition to ard kilogram is a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at the French Bureau of Weights in addition to Measures. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 1.2 SI Units of Length, Mass, in addition to Time SI unit of time: the second The second is defined as a certain number of oscillations of the cesium-133 atom. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 1.2 SI Units of Length, Mass, in addition to Time In addition to length, mass, in addition to time, base units in the SI system include electric current, temperature, amount of substance, in addition to luminous intensity. These seven units are believed to be all that are necessary to describe all phenomena in nature. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
1.3 More about the Metric System The British system of units is used in the U.S., with the basic units being the foot, the pound ( as long as ce, not mass), in addition to the second. However, the SI system is virtually ubiquitous outside the U.S., in addition to it makes sense to become familiar with it. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 1.3 More about the Metric System In the metric system, units of the same type of quantity (length or time, as long as example) differ from each other by factors of 10. Here are some common prefixes: © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 1.3 More about the Metric System The basic unit of volume in the SI system is the cubic meter. However, this is rather large as long as everyday use, so the volume of a cube 0.1 m on a side is called a liter. Recall the original definition of a kilogram; one kilogram of water has a volume of one liter. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
1.4 Unit Analysis A powerful way to check your calculations is to use unit analysis. Not only must the numerical values on both sides of an equation be equal, the units must be equal as well. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 1.4 Unit Analysis Units may be manipulated algebraically just as other quantities are. Example: There as long as e, this equation is dimensionally correct. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 1.5 Unit Conversions A conversion factor simply lets you express a quantity in terms of other units without changing its physical value or size. The fraction in blue is the conversion factor; its numerical value is 1. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
1.6 Significant Figures Calculations may contain two types of numbers: exact numbers in addition to measured numbers. Exact numbers are part of a definition, such as the 2 in d = 2r. Measured numbers are just that as long as example, we might measure the radius of a circle to be 10.3 cm, but that measurement is not exact. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 1.6 Significant Figures When dealing with measured numbers, it is useful to consider the number of significant figures. The significant figures in any measurement are the digits that are known with certainty, plus one digit that is uncertain. It is easy to create answers that have many digits that are not significant using a calculator. For example, 1/3 on a calculator shows as 0.33333333333. But if weve just cut a pie in three pieces, how well do we really know that each one is 1/3 of the whole © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 1.6 Significant Figures Significant figures in calculations: 1. When multiplying in addition to dividing quantities, leave as many significant figures in the answer as there are in the quantity with the least number of significant figures. 2. When adding or subtracting quantities, leave the same number of decimal places (rounded) in the answer as there are in the quantity with the least number of decimal places. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
1.7 Problem Solving The flowchart at left outlines a useful problem-solving strategy. It can be used as long as most types of physics problems. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 1.7 Problem Solving The table at left describes several types of examples that are used in the text. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Review of Chapter 1 SI units of length, mass, in addition to time: meter, kilogram, second Liter: 1000 cm3; one liter of water has a mass of 1 kg Unit analysis may be used to verify answers to problems Significant figures digits known with certainty, plus one © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Review of Chapter 1 Problem-solving procedure: 1. Read the problem carefully in addition to analyze it. 2. Where appropriate, draw a diagram. 3. Write down the given data in addition to what is to be found. (Make unit conversions if necessary.) 4. Determine which principle(s) are applicable. 5. Per as long as m calculations with given data. 6. Consider if the results are reasonable. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
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