Chapter 1 The Science of Physics 1-1: What is Physics We are surrounded by the

Chapter 1 The Science of Physics 1-1: What is Physics We are surrounded by the

Mama, Posh, Founder has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 1 The Science of Physics 1-1: What is Physics We are surrounded by the principles of physics in our everyday lives. Any problem or question that deals with temperature, size, motion, position, shape or color involves physics. The Areas of Physics:

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Classical Mechanics motion of macroscopic objects at low speeds (v c) Examine motion & its causes. Ex: falling objects, weight, friction, etc. Thermodynamics deals with heat, work, temperature, in addition to the statistical behaviour of a large number of particles Vibrations & Waves Deals with specific types of repetitive motion. Ex: springs, pendulums, sound

Optics Deals with light in addition to its properties. Ex: mirrors, lenses, color Electromagnetism theory of electricity, magnetism in addition to electromagnetic fields Ex: electric charge, circuits, permanent magnets Relativity motion of objects at any speed, including very high speeds Ex: particle collisions, nuclear energy

Quantum mechanics theory dealing with behaviour of particles at atomic levels The Science of Physics Electromagnetism: Battery, starter, headlights Thermodynamics: Heat in addition to temperature Efficient engines, coolants Mechanics: Spinning motion of the wheels, tires that provide enough friction as long as traction  all motions Vibrations in addition to Mechanical waves: shocks, radio speakers sound insulation Optics: Headlights, rear-view mirrors Scientific Method Make observations & collect data that lead to a question. Formulate in addition to objectively test hypotheses by experiment. Interpret results, in addition to revise hypothesis if necessary. State conclusions in a as long as m that can be evaluated by others.

A model is a replica or description designed to show the structure or workings of an object, system or concept. Simplify Help build hypotheses Guide experimental design Make testable predictions Models in physics 1-2: Measurement Physical Quantity vs. Units Physical quantity- any characteristics of objects that can be measured. Ex: length, mass, temperature Units of measure- basic st in addition to ards of measurement Ex: length can be measured in miles or meters

SI St in addition to ards Other units are DERIVED units, that is, they are calculated from measurements in the base units. Examples are velocity (m/s), acceleration (m/s2), or density (g/cm3). Prefixes Symbolize powers of 10 Used to accommodate very large/small quantities Commonly used prefixes on table 1-3, pg. 12

Conversions Conversion factor- ratio used to convert from one unit or prefix to another Used in the factor-label method to express answers in the desired units. Example: 1 mile = 1.61 km Example: Convert 10.0 miles into kilometers Conversion factor: 1 mile = 1.61 km Set up the conversion so that miles cancel when multiplied km = 10.0 mi x 1.61 km = 16.1 1 mile Sample Problem Oh man, a bleary-eyed student once noted, That lecture on classroom policies must have gone on as long as a microcentury. How many minutes are there in a microcentury

Solution Micro = 10-6 Accuracy & Precision Accuracy- how close a measurement comes to accepted value Precision- degree of exactness, small variation between repeated measurements Measurement / Significant figures Uncertainty in measurement depends on the quality of the apparatus, skill of the experimenter in addition to number of measurements per as long as med Sig figs keep track of imprecision Sig figs include all measured digits plus one estimated digit

Sig Figs 10 11 12 10 11 12 10.3 : read as much as you can in addition to estimate one digit 10.30 : read as much as you can in addition to estimate one digit The rules as long as significant digits 1. All whole number digits are significant. Ex. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 245,955 6 significant digits 14,328 — 96 — 2. Rules as long as Zeros a. Zeros between other nonzero digits are significant. Example: 404 3 significant digits 40530004 — 606060606 — The rules as long as significant digits

b. Zeros in front of nonzero digits are not significant Example 00222 3 significant digits 0.00556 — 00000000001 — The rules as long as significant digits c. Zeros that are at the end of a number in addition to also to the right of the decimal are significant. Example 120.00 5 significant digits 4052.00000 — 30302.0 — The rules as long as significant digits d. Zeros at the end of a number without a decimal are not significant. Example 300 1 significant digit 46000 — 460.00 — The rules as long as significant digits

Tables, graphs & equations make data easier to underst in addition to Equations used to describe relationship between physical quantities Appendix B pg 952-960 lists variables, symbols & constants used Dimensional Analysis Dimensional analysis used to: – check a specific as long as mula – give hints as to the correct as long as m the equations must take Dimensional analysis does not give any in as long as mation on the magnitude of the constants of proportionality Orders-of-Magnitude Refers to the nearest power of 10 Useful to compute an approximate answer Results can be used to decide whether a more precise calculation is necessary Assumptions are usually needed

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