Chapter 1 The Structure of Metals Metal in addition to Non-metal Use in Automobiles Figure
Simone, Tasha, Midday Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 1 The Structure of Metals Metal in addition to Non-metal Use in Automobiles Figure I.1 Some of the metallic in addition to nonmetallic materials used in a typical automobile Engineering Materials of Part I Figure I.2 An outline of the engineering materials described in Part I.
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Behavior in addition to Manufacturing Properties of Part I Figure I.3 An outline of the behavior in addition to the manufacturing properties of materials described in Part I. Chapter 1: The Structure of Metals Figure 1.1 An outline of the topics described in Chapter 1. Crystal Structure of Metals Body-centered cubic (BCC) – alpha iron, chromium, molybdenum, tantalum, tungsten, in addition to vanadium. Face-centered cubic (FCC) – gamma iron, aluminum, copper, nickel, lead, silver, gold in addition to platinum. Hexagonal close-packed – beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, magnesium, alpha titanium, zinc in addition to zirconium. Common crystal structures as long as metals:
Body-centered Cubic Crystal Structure Figure 1.2 The body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure: (a) hard-ball model; (b) unit cell; in addition to (c) single crystal with many unit cells Face-centered Cubic Crystal Structure Figure 1.3 The face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure: (a) hard-ball model; (b) unit cell; in addition to (c) single crystal with many unit cells Hexagonal Close-packed Crystal Structure Figure 1.4 The hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystal structure: (a) unit cell; in addition to (b) single crystal with many unit cells.
Permanent De as long as mation Figure 1.5 Permanent de as long as mation (also called plastic de as long as mation) of a single crystal subjected to a shear stress: (a) structure be as long as e de as long as mation; in addition to (b) permanent de as long as mation by slip. The b/a ratio influences the magnitude of the shear stress required to cause slip. Permanent De as long as mation in addition to Twinning in Crystal Figure 1.6 (a) Permanent de as long as mation of a single crystal under a tensile load. Note that the slip planes tend to align themselves in the direction of the pulling as long as ce. This behavior can be simulated using a deck of cards with a rubber b in addition to around them. (b) Twinning in a single crystal in tension. Slip Lines in addition to Slip B in addition to s in Crystal Figure 1.7 Schematic illustration of slip lines in addition to slip b in addition to s in a single crystal (grain) subjected to a shear stress. A slip b in addition to consists of a number of slip planes. The crystal at the center of the upper illustration is an individual grain surrounded by several other grains
Defects in a Single-Crystal Lattice Figure 1.8 Schematic illustration of types of defects in a single-crystal lattice: self-interstitial, vacancy, interstitial, in addition to substitutional Dislocations in Crystals Figure 1.9 Types of dislocations in a single crystal: (a) edge dislocation; in addition to (b) screw dislocation Edge Dislocation Movement Figure 1.10 Movement of an edge dislocation across the crystal lattice under a shear stress. Dislocations help explain why the actual strength of metals is much lower than that predicted by theory.
Solidification of Molten Metal Figure 1.11 Schematic illustration of the stages during solidification of molten metal; each small square represents a unit cell. (a) Nucleation of crystals at r in addition to om sites in the molten metal; note that the crystallographic orientation of each site is different. (b) in addition to (c) Growth of crystals as solidification continues. (d) Solidified metal, showing individual grains in addition to grain boundaries; note the different angles at which neighboring grains meet each other. Grain Sizes where N = Grains per square inch at 100x magnification n = ASTM grain size number N = 2n-1 ASTM Grain Size: Plastic De as long as mation of Idealized Grains Figure 1.12 Plastic de as long as mation of idealized (equiaxed) grains in a specimen subjected to compression (such as occurs in the as long as ging or rolling of metals): (a) be as long as e de as long as mation; in addition to (b) after de as long as mation. Note the alignment of grain boundaries along a horizontal direction; this effect is known as preferred orientation.
Cracks in Sheet Metal Figure 1.13 (a) Schematic illustration of a crack in sheet metal that has been subjected to bulging (caused by, as long as example, pushing a steel ball against the sheet). Note the orientation of the crack with respect to the rolling direction of the sheet; this sheet is anisotropic. (b) Aluminum sheet with a crack (vertical dark line at the center) developed in a bulge test; the rolling direction of the sheet was vertical. Source: Courtesy of J.S. Kallend, Illinois Institute of Technology Recovery, Recrystallization, in addition to Grain Growth Effects Figure 1.14 Schematic illustration of the effects of recovery, recrystallization, in addition to grain growth on mechanical properties in addition to on the shape in addition to size of grains. Note the as long as mation of small new grains during recrystallization. Temperature Ranges as long as Cold, Warm in addition to Hot Working
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