Chapter 1 What is Science Branches of Science Branches of Science Branches of Science

Chapter 1 What is Science Branches of Science Branches of Science Branches of Science www.phwiki.com

Chapter 1 What is Science Branches of Science Branches of Science Branches of Science

Peterson, Sarah, Features Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 1 Introduction to Science What is Science Science is what scientists do Science is trying to explain the world around us Science is a way of thinking “Science is a system of knowledge based on facts or principles Book talks about “social science” We prefer social studies Branches of Science Science

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Branches of Science Science of living things Science Branches of Science Science of matter in addition to energy Science Branches of Science The systems of the earth Science

Branches of Science There are many more branches to biological in addition to earth sciences The three categories overlap Biochemistry Astrobiology Geophysics Science in addition to Technology Pure Science – search as long as scientific knowledge Technology – application of science Two are interrelated Technology develops new tools as long as investigating nature New science leads to new applications Scientific Theory A reasoned explanation tested by many observations in addition to experiments Tells why things are Three things Must explain clearly in addition to simply Must be repeatable Must be able to make predictions Theories can be changed or modified by new evidence

Scientific Laws Describe what happens Quantitative – use numbers in addition to equations to describe Often equations are part of the law Mathematics is a universal language Law vs. Theory Law Theory Describes how Explains why Summarizes observations Agrees with observations Usually an equation Predicts new discoveries Observations Qualitative – describe with words Hot , red, large Quantitative – describe with numbers 100° , 10 meters, 3.46 grams Scientists prefer quantitative Easy to agree upon No personal bias

Models A representation of some object or event Made to better underst in addition to it Often used if real thing is too big, small or complex. Come in a variety of as long as ms Physical models Diagrams Computer models The Scientific Method A way of thinking about in addition to solving problems It is a logical method You do it all the time The Scientific Method Starts with observation- can be anything Question – what do you want to know Gather data- what is already known Form hypothesis- a possible explanation Design experiment to test hypothesis This is the hard part

The Scientific Method Experiments generate more observations Allow us to draw conclusions about hypothesis Support the hypothesis or not If not modify hypothesis The Scientific Method Observe The Scientific Method Does not always work this way, but gives a way of guiding our thinking Hard part is testing only one variable at a time. Changing only one thing at a time If you change more than one, you don’t know which one is the cause

Measurement A number without a unit is meaningless It is 4 long 4 what Scientists use the metric system or SI as long as le System Internationale d’Units Makes sharing data easier Metric System Measurements have two parts Base unit in addition to prefix Prefixes multiply or divide the base units by multiples 10 Prefixes are the same as long as all units Base Units Length meter m Mass gram g Temperature kelvin K Electric current ampere A Amount of substance mole mol Luminous intensity c in addition to ela cd

Prefixes Prefix Symbol Meaning As a number kilo- k thous in addition to 1,000 mega- M million 1,000,000 giga- G billion 1,000,000,000 deci- d tenth 0.1 centi- c hundredth 0.01 milli- m thous in addition to th 0.001 micro- m millionth 0.000 001 Tables Organizing data into groups Putting those groups into rows in addition to columns Gives us an easy way to compare data Graphs Give a visual representation of data Summarizes data. Two types of variables Independent variable the thing you have control over Dependent variable the thing that you don’t have control over. Three types of graphs line, bar, in addition to circle

Peterson, Sarah Daily Collegian Features Editor www.phwiki.com

Circle Graphs Often called a pie chart divided into parts easy to compare to whole amount. Use several to show changes over time Bar Graphs Bar Graphs- wide columns used things like weight, height , in addition to length. Compare quantities Line Graphs Line Graphs- compares sets of data, show change in addition to patterns over time.

Graphs include A title Labeled axes A consistent scale. Metric conversions Changing the unit Does not change the size of the measurement If the unit gets bigger the number gets smaller If the unit gets smaller the number gets bigger Math with multiples of 10 We will cancel out units to make sure we set the problem up right Metric conversions A common race is the 5 K, which is 5 km. How many meters is this Given unit -km Unit wanted –m The unit gets smaller, so the number must get bigger 1000 m = 1 km

Measuring Mass Use a triple beam balance First balance it at zero. Then put item on Then move one weight at a time When balanced, add up the weights 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Peterson, Sarah Features Editor

Peterson, Sarah is from United States and they belong to Daily Collegian and they are from  Fresno, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Peterson, Sarah deal with the subjects like Features/Lifestyle; Local News; Student/Alumni Interest

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