Chapter 10 Population Dynamics (Underst in addition to ing How Populations Work) Homework Cha

Chapter 10 Population Dynamics (Underst in addition to ing How Populations Work) Homework Cha www.phwiki.com

Chapter 10 Population Dynamics (Underst in addition to ing How Populations Work) Homework Cha

Brown, Ed, Midday Host/Weekend Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 10 Population Dynamics (Underst in addition to ing How Populations Work) Homework Chapter 9 Question A Interactions that cause clumped dispersion Patchy variation in habitat quality Physical environment Resource availability Limited dispersal of young from parents Social behavior (flock, school, herd), often as a predation avoidance adaptation.

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Question A Interactions that cause regular dispersion Competition as long as space or resources. Interactions that cause r in addition to om dispersion Neutral or NO interaction Interaction of limited dispersal of young (causing clumped dispersion) with competition among the young (causing mortality in addition to shift to regular dispersion) Question B How might variation in environment (soil type) affect dispersion in plants Patchy variation of soil nutrients, water, or physical environment cause plants to occur in patches (clumped dispersion). How might interactions among plants affect dispersion Competition as long as space & resources causes regular dispersion. Question C (Part 1) What was the main finding of studies by Damuth (1981) & Peters & Wassenberg (1983) Density of animal species decreases with increasing body size.

Question C (Part 2) Which of the 3 types of rarity described by (Rabinowitz 1981) is related to the findings of Damuth (1981), Peters & Wassenberg (1983) Species with large body size have small local population size (within habitats). Question C (Part 3) Example of endangered species affected by pattern described by (Damuth 1981), Peters & Wassenberg 1983) Elephant Tiger Rhinoceros Mountain gorilla P in addition to a Blue, Right whale Question D Total of 30 whales photo “marked”. 50 whales observed later, of which 10 were photo “marked”. M = n = m = 30 50 10 Population = 30 (50 + 1) = 139 Size (N) (10 + 1)

Question E Total of 30 white oak in ten 0.05 ha plots. Density = Total oak / Total plot area = 30 / 0.5 = 60 white oak / ha Density = 60/10,000 = 0.006 white oak / m2 Which density value is better Density per hectare is in whole numbers, rather than a small fraction of a tree. Question F Average 64 zebra mussels / 0.01 m2 plot. Density = Avg Mussels / plot area = 64 / 0.01 m2 = 6400 zebra mussels / m2 Density = 6400 x 10,000 = 64,000,000 / ha Which density value is better Density per m2 is a more manageable number than millions of mussels per ha. Question G Average 12 velagers / 0.1 ml water. Density = Avg Velagers / Volume (liter) = 12 / 0.0001 liter = 120,000 velagers / liter

Chapter 10 Population Dynamics (Underst in addition to ing How Populations Work) What Processes Determine Current Population Size Population size in earlier time period (Nt-1) Number of births (B) Number of deaths (D) Number of immigrants (I) Number that emigrate (E) Nt = Nt-1 + (BD) + (IE) Dynamics of Death Survivorship

Age-Specific Survivorship (Lx) Def: The proportion of individuals born into a population that survive to a specified age x. Lx = nx / n0 x = age, nx = number of individuals surviving to age x. n0 = number of individuals born into population in a single time period (Cohort) Cohort Survivorship Mark all individuals born in a single year (called a cohort). n0 Each year, count the number of surviving individuals in the cohort. nx Lx = proportion of original cohort still alive as long as each age class = x. = nx / n0 Example Calculations as long as Cohort Survivorship

Survivorship From Age-at-Death Determine age-at-death as long as a sample of dead organisms. Often based on annual growth structures. Annual tree rings Annual layers in fish scales in addition to ear bones Enamel layers in bear teeth Ridges on horns of Dall sheep Computing Survivorship From Age-at-Death Computing Survivorship From Age-at-Death

Three Types of Survivorship Curves Logarithmic Scale Mortality due to predation affects old more than young) Type 2 Survivorship Curve: Constant Mortality Rate Winter mortality due to freezing affects all ages equally) Mortality due to floods affects all ages equally)

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Type 3 Survivorship Curve: Perennial Plant Species Mortality due to predation affects seeds in addition to seedlings more than mature plants Dynamics of Birth Age-Specific Birth Rate (mx) Definition: The average number of young born to female organisms of a specific age x. Determined only by direct observation of number of young produced by females. Fecundity schedule: Age-specify birth rates across an entire lifetime.

Interactions Between Survivorship in addition to Birth Rates Net Reproductive Rate (R0) Definition: The average number of offspring produced by an individual organism during their entire lifetime. R0 = Sum as long as all age classes {Lx mx} WHERE: x = age in addition to Lx in addition to mx are age-specific survivorship in addition to birth rates. Computing Net Reproductive Rate (R0)

Survivorship: Cohort Lifetable Survivorship of plant in addition to rotifer populations

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