Chapter 11 Heating the Atmosphere Earth’s Unique Atmosphere No other planet in o

Chapter 11 Heating the Atmosphere Earth’s Unique Atmosphere No other planet in o www.phwiki.com

Chapter 11 Heating the Atmosphere Earth’s Unique Atmosphere No other planet in o

Holiday, Doc, Midday On-Air Personality has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 11 Heating the Atmosphere Earth’s Unique Atmosphere No other planet in our solar system has an atmosphere with the exact mixture of gases or the heat in addition to moisture conditions necessary to sustain life as we know it. Introduction of Weather Weather influences our everyday activities, our jobs, in addition to our health in addition to com as long as t. Many of us pay little attention to the weather unless we are inconvenienced by it or when it adds to our enjoyment outdoors.

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Weather Continued (Severe weather events) United States has the greatest variety of weather of any country in the world. Tornadoes Flash Floods Intense Thunderstorms Hurricanes Blizzards Weather in addition to Climate Weather Weather is over a short period of time Constantly changing Climate Climate is over a long period of time Generalized, composite of weather Weather in addition to Climate Elements of weather in addition to climate Properties that are measured regularly Most important elements Temperature Humidity Cloudiness Precipitation Air Pressure Winds speed in addition to direction

Composition of the Atmosphere Air is a mixture of discrete gases Major components of clean, dry air Nitrogen (N)—78% Oxygen (O2)—21% Argon in addition to other gases Carbon dioxide (CO2)—0.036%—absorbs heat energy from Earth Composition of Dry Air Composition of the Atmosphere Variable components of air Water vapor Up to about 4% of the air’s volume Forms clouds in addition to precipitation Absorbs heat energy from Earth Aerosols Tiny solid in addition to liquid particles Water vapor can condense on solids Reflect sunlight Help color sunrise in addition to sunset

Composition of the Atmosphere Variable components of air Ozone Three atoms of oxygen (O3) Distribution not uni as long as m Concentrated between 10 to 50 kilometers above the surface Absorbs harmful UV radiation Human activity is depleting ozone by adding chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Over the past half century, people have unintentionally placed the ozone layer in jeopardy by polluting the atmosphere. Many uses developed as long as CFCs Coolants as long as AC Refrigeration equipment Cleaning solvents as long as electronic components in addition to comp. chips Propellants as long as aerosol sprays Characteristics of CFCs Practically inert, not chemically active in the lower atmosphere Gradually make their way to the ozone layer Sunlight separates the chemicals into their constituent atoms Chlorine atoms released, breaking up some of the ozone molecules

Importance of Ozone Ozone filters out most of the UV radiation from the Sun Decreased concentration allows more of these harmful wavelengths to reach Earth’s surface Increase risks of skin cancer Impair the human immune system Promote cataracts, clouding of the eye lens that reduces vision. May cause blindness if not treated Montreal Protocol was developed under the sponsorship of the UN to eliminate the production in addition to use of CFCs Structure of the Atmosphere Pressure changes Atmospheric Pressure is the weight of the air above Average sea level pressure Slightly more than 1000 millibars About 14.7 pounds per square inch Pressure decreases with altitude One half of the atmosphere is below 3.5 miles (5.6 km) Ninety percent of the atmosphere is below 10 miles (16 km)

Atmospheric Pressure Variation with Altitude Figure 11.5 Structure of the Atmosphere Atmospheric layers based on temperature Troposphere Bottom layer, where all weather phenomena occur Temperature decreases with altitude—Called the environmental lapse rate 6.5C per kilometer (average) 3.5F per 1000 feet (average) Thickness varies with latitude in addition to season—Average height is about 12 km Outer boundary is named the tropopause

Structure of the Atmosphere Atmospheric layers based on temperature Stratosphere About 12 km to 50 km Temperature increases at top due to ozone absorbing UV radiation from the sun Outer boundary is named the stratopause Mesosphere About 50 km to 80 km Temperature decreases Outer boundary is named the mesopause Structure of the Atmosphere Atmospheric layers based on temperature Thermosphere No well-defined upper limit Fraction of atmosphere’s mass Gases moving at high speeds Temperatures in the Thermosphere Increases with altitude, absorption of very shortwave high-energy solar radiation by atoms of oxygen in addition to nitrogen Rising to extreme values of more than 1000 degrees Celsius Temperature is defined in term of average speed at which molecules move Sparse amount of gases = insignificant quantity of heat

Thermal Structure of the Atmosphere Figure 11.7 Earth–Sun Relations Earth’s two principal motions Rotates on its axis, an imaginary line running through the poles One rotation/24 Hrs. Cycle of daylight in addition to darkness Revolves around the Sun Hundred years ago, most people believed Earth was stationary, Sun/stars revolved around Earth Fact: Traveling at more than 107,000 km/hr orbiting about the sun Seasons Result of Changing Sun angle Changing length of daylight Seasons Result of Changing Sun angle At around 90 degrees angle, the solar rays are more concentrated At a lesser angle, the solar rays are more spread out, in addition to there as long as e less intense solar radiation that reaches the surface Thickness of atmosphere, lower the angle, the more distance the rays have to penetrate The longer the path, the greater the chances that sunlight will be absorbed, reflected, or scattered by the atmosphere, reduce intensity at the surface Changing length of daylight Longer the day, the more solar radiation the Earth takes in

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Daily Paths of the Sun at 40° N latitude—June Figure 11.9 A Daily paths of the Sun at 40° N latitude—December Figure 11.9 B Relationship of Sun Angle in addition to Intensity of Solar Radiation Figure 11.10

Earth–Sun Relations Seasons Caused by Earth’s changing orientation to the Sun Axis is inclined 23½° Axis is always pointed in the same direction Special days (Northern Hemisphere) Summer solstice June 21–22 Sun’s vertical rays are located at the tropic of Cancer (23½° N latitude) Earth–Sun relations Seasons Special days (Northern Hemisphere) Winter solstice December 21–22 Sun’s vertical rays are located at the tropic of Capricorn (23½° S latitude) Autumnal equinox September 22–23 Sun’s vertical rays are located at the equator (0° latitude) Earth–Sun relations Seasons Special days (Northern Hemisphere) Spring equinox March 21–22 Sun’s vertical rays are located at the equator (0° latitude)

World Mean Sea-Level Temperatures in July Figure 11.29 End of Chapter 11

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