Chapter 13 Chapter Learning Objectives Chapter Learning Objectives (cont) Figure 6.4: X ray image of Bertha Röntgen’s h in addition to Chapter Outline
Wills, Brad, Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 13 Chapter Learning Objectives By the end of the chapter, you will recognize that Nuclear reactions result from instability of the nucleus. Certain combinations of nucleons are inherently unstable, causing some nuclides to undergo radioactive decay. Types of radioactive decay include alpha emission, beta emission, in addition to gamma emission.
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Chapter Learning Objectives (cont) Each radioisotope has a characteristic half-life, the time it takes as long as half the sample to undergo radioactive decay. Radioactive dating uses the amount of a radioisotope remaining in a sample to determine its age. Radioisotopes in the environment contribute to the publics unavoidable exposure to radiation. Matter lost during nuclear trans as long as mations undergoes conversion to energy. X-rays, the Forerunner to Radioactivity X-rays are high source of pure energy as long as m of electromagnetic radiation Figure 6.4: X ray image of Bertha Röntgen’s h in addition to Credit: Corbis
Chapter Outline Nuclear vs. Chemical Reactions Radioisotopes Atoms that have unstable nuclei are radioactive, meaning that the nucleus may release energy in addition to /or particles to become more stable. Formation of New Elements Unlike in chemical reactions, new elements can be as long as med during nuclear reactions called transmutation. Mass number = protons + neutrons Isotopes are atoms that have different numbers of neutrons but the same Number of protons. Figure 6.2: Atom smashing is like a pool break Credit: Getty Images Figure 6.7: Pierre in addition to Marie Curie Credit: Corbis Search as long as new Radioactive elements Polonium in addition to Radium
Chapter Outline Types of Nuclear Decay: Alpha, Beta, in addition to Gamma Emissions Alpha-Particle Emission An alpha particle is identical to a helium-4 nucleus (two protons in addition to two neutrons) Alpha-particle emission results in a decrease in the atomic number by two in addition to a decrease in the mass number by four. Alpha-Particle Emission Example A: 226Ra 4He + 88 2 Chapter Outline Types of Nuclear Decay (cont) Beta-Particle Emission A beta particle is identical to an electron. Results from the conversion of a neutron to a proton in addition to a beta particle The atomic number increases by one, in addition to the mass number remains the same.
Beta-Particle Emission = electron Example A: 228Ra 0b + 88 -1 Chapter Outline Types of Nuclear Decay Gamma-Ray Emission Gamma rays are high-energy electromagnetic radiation only. There is no change in the identity of an element upon the release of gamma rays. Gamma-Ray Emission Example A: 222Ram 0g + 83 0 m st in addition to s as long as metastable
Chapter Outline Artificial Transmutation Induced Radioactivity Bombarding a normally stable nucleus with high-energy particles can lead to transmutation of one element into another. Transuranic Elements Elements heavier than uranium (Z=92), the transuranic elements, do not occur in nature but can be made through artificial transmutation. Figure 6.11: Irène in addition to Frédéric Joliot-Curie Credit: Corbis Were the 1st to produce a radioactive nuclide through artificial transmutation Figure 6.12:Transuranic elements in the periodic table Elements higher than Uranium 92 are transuranic elements
Chapter Outline Radioactive Decay Half-Life The time required as long as half a sample to undergo radioactive decay Half-Life Figure 6.15: A Geiger-Müller counter
Figure 6.20: Geiger-Müller counter with radioactive antique orange plate Chapter Outline Radioactive Decay (cont) Radioactive Dating The radioactive decay of carbon-14 can be used to estimate the age of organic materials. 6C12 6C13 6C14 Types of Carbon Isotopes Mass number = protons + neutrons The process of Carbon-14 Dating
Figure 6.17: The Shroud of Turin Credit: The Image Works Reputed as the burial cloth of Jesus Christ. C-14 dating by 3 independent labs report the Cloth originated during the Medieval times, Between A.D. 1260-1390. Figure 6.18: Mummified remains found frozen in the Italian Alps Credit: L in addition to ov At least 5000 years old By carbon-14 dating Chapter Outline Radiation Exposure Background Exposure Consumer in addition to natural sources such as cosmic rays in addition to radon Biological Effects of Radiation Ionizing radiation can lead to damage in both body cells (somatic damage) in addition to reproductive cells (genetic damage). The penetrating power of the types of radiation follows the general trend: gamma rays > beta particles > alpha particles
Figure 6.21: Sources of radiation Figure 6.22: Means in addition to result of radon exposure Relative Penetration of Radiation
Hiroshima be as long as e (top) in addition to after (bottom) Nagasaki be as long as e (top) in addition to after (bottom) Figure 6.27: Fusion: small nuclei as long as m larger nuclide, release energy This type of Fusion is being Examined as An alternative Energy source On Earth. Small nuclei come together to as long as m larger nuclide, releasing energy Key Words Nucleons Radioactive decay Nuclide Radioisotope Transuranic elements X rays Free radical Alpha () particles Beta () particles Gamma () rays Transmutation Positron Half-life Geiger-Müller counter Radioactive dating Somatic damage Genetic damage Strong nuclear as long as ce Fission Fusion Mass defect Binding energy
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