Chapter 13 Rolling of Metals Flat-Rolling in addition to Shape-Rolling Processes Figure 13.
Woody, Susan, Midday On-Air Personality/DJ has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 13 Rolling of Metals Flat-Rolling in addition to Shape-Rolling Processes Figure 13.1 Schematic outline of various flat-rolling in addition to shape-rolling processes. Source: After the American Iron in addition to Steel Institute. Flat-Rolling Process Figure 13.2 (a) Schematic illustration of the flat-rolling process. (b) Friction as long as ces acting on strip surfaces. (c) Roll as long as ce, F, in addition to the torque, T, acting on the rolls. The width of the strip, w, usually increases during rolling, as shown later in Fig. 13.5.
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Roll Arrangements Figure 13.3 Schematic illustration of various roll arrangements: (a) four-high rolling mill showing various features. The stiffness of the housing, the rolls, in addition to the roll bearings are all important in controlling in addition to maintaining the thickness of the rolled strip; (b) two-hill mill; (c) three-high mill; in addition to (d) cluster (or Sendzimir) mill. Bending of Rolls Figure 13.4 (a) Bending of straight cylindrical rolls caused by roll as long as ces. (b) Bending of rolls ground with camber, producing a strip with uni as long as m thickness through the strip width. Deflections have been exaggerated as long as clarity. Spreading in Flat Rolling Figure 13.5 Increase in strip width (spreading) in flat rolling. Note that similar spreading can be observed when dough is rolled with a rolling pin.
Effects of Hot Rolling Figure 13.6 Changes in the grain structure of cast or of large-grain wrought metals during hot rolling. Hot rolling is an effective way to reduce grain size in metals as long as improved strength in addition to ductility. Cast structures of ingots or continuous castings are converted to a wrought structure by hot working. Roller Leveling Figure 13.7 (a) A method of roller leveling to flatten rolled sheets. (b) Roller leveling to straighten drawn bars. Defects in Flat Rolling Figure 13.8 Schematic illustration of typical defects in flat rolling: (a) wavy edges; (b) zipper cracks in the center of the strip; (c) edge cracks; in addition to (d) alligatoring.
Residual Stresses Developed in Rolling Figure 13.9 (a) Residual stresses developed in rolling with small-diameter rolls or at small reductions in thickness per pass. (b) Residual stresses developed in rolling with large-diameter rolls or at high reductions per pass. Note the reversal of the residual stress patterns. Rolling Mill Figure 13.10 A general view of a rolling mill. Source: Courtesy of Ispat Inl in addition to . T in addition to em-Rolling Figure 13.11 An example of a t in addition to em-rolling operation.
Shape Rolling of an H-section part Figure 13.12 Steps in the shape rolling of an H-section part. Various other structural sections, such as channels in addition to I-beams, also are rolled by this kind of process. Roll-Forging Figure 13.13 Two examples of the roll- as long as ging operation, also known as cross-rolling. Tapered leaf springs in addition to knives can be made by this process. Source: After J. Holub. Production of Steel Balls Figure 13.14 (a) Production of steel balls by the skew-rolling process. (b) Production of steel balls by upsetting a cylindrical blank. Note the as long as mation of flash. The balls made by these processes subsequently are ground in addition to polished as long as use in ball bearings.
Ring-Rolling Figure 13.15 (a) Schematic illustration of a ring-rolling operation. Thickness reduction results in an increase in the part diameter. (b-d) Examples of cross-sections that can be as long as med by ring-rolling. Thread-Rolling Processes Figure 13.16 Thread-rolling processes: (a) in addition to (c) reciprocating flat dies; (b) two-roller dies. (d) Threaded fasteners, such as bolts, are made economically by these processes at high rates of production. Source: Courtesy of Central Rolled Thread Die Co. Machined in addition to Rolled Threads Figure 13.17 (a) Features of a machined or rolled thread. Grain flow in (b) machined in addition to (c) rolled threads. Unlike machining, which cuts through the grains of the metal, the rolling of threads imparts improved strength because of cold working in addition to favorable grain flow.
Cavity Formation in Bar Figure 13.18 Cavity as long as mation in a solid, round bar in addition to its utilization in the rotary tube-piercing process as long as making seamless pipe in addition to tubing. (see also Fig. 2.9.) Various Tube-Rolling Processes Figure 13.19 Schematic illustration of various tube-rolling processes: (a) with a fixed m in addition to rel; (b) with a floating m in addition to rel; (c) without a m in addition to rel; in addition to (d) pilger rolling over a m in addition to rel in addition to a pair of shaped rolls. Tube diameters in addition to thicknesses also can be changed by other processes, such as drawing, extrusion, in addition to spinning. Forming of Solid Rocket Casings Figure 13.20 The Space Shuttle U.S.S. Atlantis is launched by two strapped-on solid-rocket boosters. Source: Courtesy of NASA. Figure 13.21 The as long as ming processes involved in the manufacture of solid rocket casings as long as the Space Shuttles.
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