Chapter 19 Nutrient Cycling in addition to Retention Objectives Impacts of Human Activities On Nutrient Cycles

Chapter 19 Nutrient Cycling in addition to Retention Objectives Impacts of Human Activities On Nutrient Cycles www.phwiki.com

Chapter 19 Nutrient Cycling in addition to Retention Objectives Impacts of Human Activities On Nutrient Cycles

Butler, Pat, Morning Drive Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 19 Nutrient Cycling in addition to Retention Objectives Students will be able to describe the major reservoirs of important nutrients in addition to the processes that move nutrients between these pools in addition to plant-usable exchangeable pools. Students will be able to describe factors that control biological nutrient cycling. Students will be able to describe experiments to test the influence of factors on biological nutrient cycling. Energy Flows, Nutrients Cycle Energy Flow Through Ecosystem Solar Radiation Heat Radiated to Space

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Energy Flow Drives Nutrient Cycles Nutrient Pools Reservoir Pools: The largest pool where most of the nutrient is found Atmosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Exchangeable Pools: The pool / chemical as long as m(s) of nutrients that are available as long as use by living organisms Dissolved in water Free ions on soil particles Organic matter Fluxes: Reservoir Exchangeable Pools

Generalized Nutrient Cycle Reservoir Pool Atmosphere Lithosphere Abiotic Exchangeable Pool Soil Water Organic Matter in Plants Dead Organic Matter Organic Matter in Herbivores Organic Matter in Carnivores Organic Matter In Detritivores Organic Matter In Bacteria & Fungi Excretion Decomposition Mineralization Nutrient Cycling Fluxes from reservoir to exchangeable pools are often slow (weathering, N-fixation). Most nutrients in exchangeable pools are present due to nutrient cycling. Decomposition Mineralization Losses from the exchangeable pool due to erosion, harvesting, sedimentation must be replaced by fluxes from reservoir pool. Gaseous nutrients are replaced more rapidly than mineral (sedimentary) nutrients. Factors That Influence Rate of Decomposition in addition to Nutrient Cycling Climate: Metabolic rate of organisms in detrital food web controlled by temperature in addition to water availability. Nutrient Availability (in environment in addition to in dead organic matter): Low nutrient content in DOM in addition to in the environment slows population growth of decomposer species. Grazers accelerate the breakdown of plant organic matter in addition to nutrient re-cycling.

Decomposition of Tree Leaves Dry vs. Wet Environments Decrease in mass of dead organic matter over time is the measure of decomposition rate Leaves decomposed faster in the wet environment Decomposition Rate Is Directly Related to Actual Evapotrans-piration Rate Why Ecosystems with high AE have high rainfall in addition to high temperature. Good conditions as long as microbial activity. Decomposition Rate Is Greater In Tropical vs. Temperate Forests

Plant Matter w/ High Nutritional Value Decomposes Faster Foliage w/ Low C:N Ratio in addition to Low Content of Cellulose in addition to Lignin Decomposes Faster. Decomposition Rate vs. Lignin in addition to Nitrogen Content of Leaf Matter Warmer Cooler Bad Food Why is the ground in a pine as long as est covered with dead pine needles Is this a problem Decomposition Rates Increase with Greater Nutrient Availability in the Environment

Decomposition Rate vs. [Phosphorus] in Stream Water At high phosphorous levels, further increases did not increase decomp- osition rate. WHY NOT At low phosphorous levels, increasing P caused significant increase in decomposition rate of leaf matter Effect of Grazing on Plant Biomass Turnover (Nutrient Cycling) Prairie Dog Grazing Accelerates Nitrogen Re-Cycling

Impacts of Human Activities On Nutrient Cycles Objectives Students will be able to describe how agriculture in addition to as long as estry impact soil nutrient budgets. How factors of rotation length, harvest intensity, in addition to nature of the nutrient influence impact. Consequences / Mitigation of nutrient depletion Students will be able to describe how human activities can saturate natural ecosystem nutrient pools in addition to the consequences of nutrient saturation. Agriculture in addition to Forestry Harvesting of biomass in addition to soil erosion from human crop systems remove nutrients from the ecosystem. Natural fluxes from reservoir pool replenish exchangeable nutrient pools, depending on rates of input vs. output in harvests. Additions of manure in addition to chemical fertilizer often necessary to maintain exchangeable nutrient pools in soil ( in addition to productivity)

Balancing the Nutrient Budget Exchangeable Nutrient Pool In the Soil Weathering Of Soil Minerals Atmospheric Deposition Manure Fertilization Nutrients in harvested crop Soil erosion Nutrient leaching Decomposition of crop residue Rapid Loss Slowly Replenished Harvest Interval in addition to Nutrient Depletion Soil Exchangeable Nutrient Pool Time With enough time between harvest removals, the exchangeable nutrient pool is maintained by natural fluxes from reservoir pool Long Rotation (Forestry) –Harvest Interval– Harvest Interval in addition to Nutrient Depletion Soil Exchangeable Nutrient Pool Time With insufficient time between harvests to allow as long as natural replenishment, soil nutrient pools are depleted. Crop production will decrease over time. Long rotation Short Rotation (Agriculture) Harvest Interval

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Harvest Intensity in addition to Nutrient Depletion Corn Cotton Soil Exchangeable Nutrient Pools Time Crops that remove a larger amount of nutrients require a longer time period between harvests or soil nutrient pools will be depleted. Harvesting Effects On Different Nutrients Soil Exchangeable Nutrient Pool Time Rapid Input Flux from Reservoir Pool (N) Slow Input Flux from Reservoir Pool (P) Slowly cycled mineral nutrients (Ca, Mg, K, P) are more readily depleted than more rapidly cycled gaseous nutrients (N, C, S). Managing Soil Fertility Crop Rotation: 4 Year Cycle Nutrient Extractive Crop (Corn, Cotton, Wheat, Rice) Fallow Year (No Crop) Replenish Soil Nutrients Hay, Grass Cover “Green Manure” Crop Replenish Soil Organic Matter Hay, Alfalfa N-Fixing Crop Replenish Soil N Pool (Soybean, Alfalfa)

Managing Soil Fertility Crop Rotation: 2 Year Cycle Nutrient Extractive Crop (Corn, Cotton, Wheat, Rice) N-Fixing Crop Replenish Soil N Pool (Soybean, Alfalfa) What about . Other Nutrients (Ca, Mg, K, P) Chemical Liming And Fertilization Soil Organic Matter Degraded water retention, aeration, drainage Corn Yield U.S.A Wheat Yield Major gains in crop production from the Green Revolution required massive increases in the use of chemical fertilizer Fertilizer Use in addition to the Green Revolution A Case Study Agricultural Trends In Georgia (USA): 1940 – 1990 Acreage of agricultural l in addition to decreased by 50% (farm ab in addition to onment) State-wide total agricultural crop production increased by 100% Crop yield per acre increased 4-fold. How did this happen

Summary “Sustainability” of agricultural production systems in addition to “Health” of natural ecosystems require balancing of nutrient budgets. Nutrient depletion of agricultural systems requires expensive chemical fertilization that may not be sustainable long-term. Nutrient saturation of natural systems is a major risk to ecosystem health. The End

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