Chapter 2 Images of Managing Change Chapter 3 Why Organizations Change

Chapter 2 Images of Managing Change Chapter 3 Why Organizations Change www.phwiki.com

Chapter 2 Images of Managing Change Chapter 3 Why Organizations Change

Hofferman, Jon, Features Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 2 Images of Managing Change Underst in addition to the importance of organizational images in addition to mental models. Identify different images of managing in addition to of change outcomes. Outline six different images of managing change. Identify the theoretical underpinnings of these six change management images. Underst in addition to the practical implications of the six images in addition to how to use them. Learning Objectives Images of Managing Change Controlling Top-down view of management Fayol’s theory of management: planning, organizing, comm in addition to ing, coordinating in addition to controlling. Shaping Participative style of management Improving the capabilities of people within the organization Images of Managing Change Images of Change Outcomes Images of Change Managers: Director Coach Navigator Interpreter Caretaker Nurturer Three Core Uses of the Images

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Images of Change Outcomes Intended Change: Change is a result of planned action Partially Intended Change: Change may need to be re-modified after it is initially implemented Unintended Change: Forces beyond the control of the change manager Images of Managing Change Images of Change Outcomes Images of Change Managers: Director Coach Navigator Interpreter Caretaker Nurturer Three Core Uses of the Images Images of Managing Change Images of Change Outcomes Images of Change Managers: Director Coach Navigator Interpreter Caretaker Nurturer Three Core Uses of the Images Images of Change Managers Images of Managing Change Images of Change Outcomes Images of Change Managers: Director Coach Navigator Interpreter Caretaker Nurturer Three Core Uses of the Images Director Based on an image of management as control in addition to of change outcomes as being achievable. Supported by the n-step models in addition to contingency theory. Coach Relies upon building in the right set of values, skills in addition to “drills” that are deemed to be the best ones to be drawn upon in order to achieve desired organizational outcomes. Related to OD approaches. Images of Change Managers

Images of Managing Change Images of Change Outcomes Images of Change Managers: Director Coach Navigator Interpreter Caretaker Nurturer Three Core Uses of the Images Navigator Control is the heart of management action, although a variety of external factors mean that managers may achieve some intended change outcomes in addition to others will occur over which they have little control. Supported by the contextualist in addition to processual theories of change. Interpreter The manager creates meaning as long as other organizational members, helping them to make sense of various organizational events in addition to actions. Supported by the sense-making theory of organizational change Images of Change Managers Images of Change Managers Images of Managing Change Images of Change Outcomes Images of Change Managers: Director Coach Navigator Interpreter Caretaker Nurturer Three Core Uses of the Images Caretaker The manager’s control is severely impeded by a variety of internal in addition to external as long as ces beyond their scope. The caretaker shepherds their organizations along as best they can. Supported by life-cycle, population-ecology in addition to institutional theories. Nurturer Even small changes may have a large impact on organizations in addition to managers are not able to control the outcome of these changes but may nurture their organizations. This facilitates organizational qualities that enable positive self-organizing to occur. Related to chaos in addition to Confucian/ Taoist theories. Three Core Uses of the Images These six images of change managers have three core uses: They highlight a variety of assumptions that change managers make about change in addition to increase the awareness of different interpretations of change. They draw attention to the dominant images of change within an organization. They highlight a range of perspectives available to change managers. Images of Managing Change Images of Change Outcomes Images of Change Managers: Director Coach Navigator Interpreter Caretaker Nurturer Three Core Uses of the Images

Table 2.5 Chapter Reflections as long as the Practicing Change Manager Chapter 3 Why Organizations Change Why Change Change is a risky activity – many organizational changes fail or do not realize their intended outcomes. This raises the question: why is change so prevalent Pressure to change comes from: External, environmental pressures Internal, organizational pressures Why Change External Pressures Fashion M in addition to ated Geopolitical Market decline Hyper- competition Reputation & credibility Role of the Environment Internal Pressures Growth Integration & collaboration Identity New broom Power & political

Environmental Pressures Why Change External Pressures Fashion M in addition to ated Geopolitical Market decline Hyper- competition Reputation & credibility Role of the Environment Internal Pressures Growth Integration & collaboration Identity New broom Power & political Environmental Pressures Why Change External Pressures Fashion M in addition to ated Geopolitical Market decline Hyper- competition Reputation & credibility Role of the Environment Internal Pressures Growth Integration & collaboration Identity New broom Power & political Debate: Role of the Environment Organizational learning vs. threat-rigidity whether external pressures facilitate or inhibit the process of change. Environment as an objective entity vs. environment as a cognitive construction The as long as mer treats the environment as an objective entity to which managers must respond. The latter emphasizes the centrality of managers’ interpretations of environmental conditions as the key determinant of behavior. Forces as long as change vs. as long as ces as long as stability: External as long as ces can vary; they either promote change or promote stability. Bridging (adapting) vs buffering (shielding): These represent either strategies that can maintain effectiveness by adapting parts of the organization to changes happening in the outside environment (bridging) or focusing on efficiency by avoiding change through shielding parts of it from the effects of the environment (buffering). Why Change External Pressures Fashion M in addition to ated Geopolitical Market decline Hyper-competition Reputation & credibility Role of the Environment Internal Pressures Growth Integration & collaboration Identity New broom Power & political

Internal Pressures Why Change External Pressures Fashion M in addition to ated Geopolitical Market decline Hyper-competition Reputation & credibility Role of the Environment Internal Pressures Growth Integration & collaboration Identity New broom Power & political Internal Pressures Why Change External Pressures Fashion M in addition to ated Geopolitical Market decline Hyper-competition Reputation & credibility Role of the Environment Internal Pressures Growth Integration & collaboration Identity New broom Power & political Exercise 3.2 Public Change Rationales

More on the why of change Life cycle theories: linear in addition to irreversible sequence of prescribed change Organizations go through different stages: birth, youth, midlife, maturity, . When reached maturity, revitalization is needed. Teleological theories: recurrent in addition to discontinuous sequence of goal setting, implementation, in addition to adaptation Dialectic theories: recurrent in addition to discontinuous sequence of confrontation, conflict, in addition to synthesis Evolutionary theories: recurrent, cumulative in addition to probabilistic sequence of variation, selection, in addition to retention Theories of Organizational Change globalization: Deregulation, opening of national economies Unpredictable in addition to Rapidly changing markets Service in addition to knowledge base business profitability based on machine power to profitability based on intelligence in addition to skills Economic Pressures

Flexible working arrangements Women in management Educated work as long as ce/society Demographics Immigrations People more independent, questioning Lack of loyalty between the workers in addition to companies Social Pressures In as long as mation in addition to Communication Technology High per as long as mance work systems Integrated in as long as mation systems Access to in as long as mation Global networking New media Shortening product life cycles High quality Technological Pressures SD Elements: Social Employee Well-Being Quality of Life Business Ethics Economic Shareholder Value Creation Economic Development Environmental Environmental Impact Minimization Natural Resource Protection Sustainable Development Pressures

Hofferman, Jon Animation World Network Features Editor www.phwiki.com

Challenging old assumptions Underst in addition to ing the new rules of competition Capturing the potential of new paradigms by rethinking business processes Constant innovation Improving continually as part of normal functioning Trans as long as ming while keeping purpose in addition to direction Continuous learning Organizational Self-renewal continual new in addition to unfamiliar problems cannot be broken down in addition to distributed among the existing specialists roles continual adjustment in addition to redefinition of individual tasks is needed Interactions in addition to communication may occur at any level as required by the process organization charts are not always useful Organic type of organizations, adopted to unstable conditions Industrial mindset: Invalidity of the internal reality of human consciousness Scarcity of resources Separate parts Discrete events emerging mindset: Consciousness is causative Abundance Relationships in addition to Wholeness Continuous Process parts are connected in addition to they are connected to the whole, change is a continuous process, in addition to the internal in addition to external dynamics are both important. Emerging Mindset

Hofferman, Jon Features Editor

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