# Chapter 21 Musical Instruments Lecture 22 Musical Instruments String Instruments Musical Pipe Instruments

## Chapter 21 Musical Instruments Lecture 22 Musical Instruments String Instruments Musical Pipe Instruments

Lent, Ron, Contributing Markets Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 21 Musical Instruments Lecture 22 CR/NC Deadline Oct. 19 Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Musical Instruments Now that we underst in addition to some of the physics of sound, lets analyze how musical sound is produced by different types of musical instruments. String Instruments St in addition to ing wave on the vibrating string causes as long as ced oscillation of the sounding board. Frequency as long as a string depends on: Length of string Thickness in addition to composition Tension in the string Loudness depends on: Amplitude of oscillation Size of sounding board Flexibility of sounding board Modern piano has many long, massive steel strings under high tension (hundreds of pounds) on a large sounding board.

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St in addition to ing Waves; Resonance Frequencies of st in addition to ing waves on a particular string are called resonant frequencies. The lowest resonant frequency f1 is referred to as the fundamental in addition to the higher resonant frequencies fn = nf1 as the nth harmonics. In order as long as different strings to have different fundamental frequencies, they must differ in length in addition to /or mass/unit length. A guitar has strings that are all the same length, but the mass/unit length varies. We change the effective length of a string by pressing it against the fingerboard. St in addition to ing Waves of Guitar Strings Thin string Thick string St in addition to ing Waves – Piano In a piano, the strings vary in both length in addition to density. This gives the sound box of a gr in addition to piano its characteristic shape. Once the length in addition to material of the string is decided, individual strings may be tuned to the exact desired frequencies by changing the tension.

Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Musical Pipe Instruments St in addition to ing Waves: Open/Open Pipe If the tube is open at both ends, both ends are antinodes, in addition to the sequence of harmonics is the same as that on a string. All harmonics appear. Demo: Whirly Tube Whirl a corrugated tube to produce a pure tone at the tubes natural frequency. Bernoulli principle creates low pressure at the moving end, drawing air through the tube. A L

Playing Simple Horns St in addition to ing waves of different frequencies (different notes) are produced, depending on how musician blows into the horn. Simple bugle is just a long pipe wrapped in a coil so its compact. Brass & Woodwind Vibrations Vibrations in a pipe instrument created by: Vibrating ones lips (e.g., trumpet) Blowing past an opening (e.g., flute) Blowing & vibrating a reed (e.g., clarinet) Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Harmonic Series Music as long as natural horns in addition to bugles is limited by harmonic series, the frequencies of the fundamental in addition to overtones. Fundamental

Changing the Length Finger-holes Disadvantage: Reduced amplitude Crooks Disadvantage: Clumsy To play notes beyond the harmonic series requires changing the frequency of the fundamental by changing the length of tube. Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Changing the Length Trombone uses a continuous slide to vary its length Cornett Changing the Length Valves used in trumpet, tuba, in addition to French horn Cornett Similar to using a crook but easy to open & close

Woodwind Instruments Resonant st in addition to ing waves also produced in a pipe but the pipe length varied by air holes (finger-holes, keys, or pads). Flute Clarinet Saxophone Oboe Bassoon Meter stick Cor anglais Using air holes reduces amplitude of the sound Percussion Instruments Create oscillations by striking an object, such as: Stretched drumhead Metal rod or disk Wooden object Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU Drum Heads Drum heads are stretched membranes that vibrate at different frequencies depending on the membranes oscillation pattern. Note: These animations are not accurate because complex patterns should oscillate faster.

Key Points of Lecture 22 Be as long as e Wednesday, read Hewitt Chap. 22 (first half). Homework 16 due by 11:00 PM Friday Oct. 22. Musical Instruments

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