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Chapter 3: Pavlovian Conditioning: FoundationsPavlovian Conditioning or Cla
Duquesne University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Chapter 3: Pavlovian Conditioning: FoundationsPavlovian Conditioning or Classical ConditioningIvan Pavlov Early 1900sA Russian physiologist digestive systemNobel prize ÿInterested in the Salivary reflex. The reflex seemed so that depend on the nature of the stimulus. marble = little salivasand = quite a lot.Sometimes dogs would salivate prior so that receiving foodPuzzling so that PavlovReflex in the absence of stimulus presentationPsychic secretionsHow was it possible that experience could alter the salivary reflex?Pavlov carefully examined the development of psychic secretions Eliciting factors?sight in addition to smell of foodfood bowllab coatsfootstepsDog had associated these visual in addition to auditory stimuli alongside taste?
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Elements of Pavlovian Conditioning.First let?s distinguish between excitatory in addition to inhibitory conditioning.Excitatory ConditioningLearning that a stimulus predicts the presence of another stimulusPavlov?s initial studiesInhibitory ConditioningLearning that the stimulus predicts the absence of another stimulusWe will discuss this more laterBack so that Excitatory ConditioningÿFirst Pavlov described the basic reflex e.g., Food elicits salivationPavlov named the stimuliUnconditioned Stimulus (US) elicits Unconditioned Response (UR)Pavlov began so that put together a theoryTwo distinct kinds of reflexes. 1) Unconditional Reflex inborn in addition to unlearned (innate)usually permanent reflex Found in virtually all members of a speciesvaries little from individual so that individual.salivary reflexpatellar reflex 2) Conditional Reflexmust be acquired through experience (not innate)not permanent. varies considerably from species so that speciesVaries from individual so that individual. salivating so that footsteps. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)a previously neutral stimulusPavlov?s bellNormally doesn?t elicit salivationWhat response would it elicit?Known as orienting responsePair the Conditioned Stimulus alongside an Unconditioned Stimulusÿtone ? food = salivation.CS ? US = URÿAfter several CS ? US pairingsTest so that see if learning occurredHow?Test alongside CS aloneLook in consideration of Conditioned Responding (CR)CS now elicits CR
Let?s go through an example in more detailconsider Empiricists rules of association (chapter 1)SaliencyCSTone10 seconds500Hz70 dbUS 5.0 gm meat powderContiguity CS-US interval = 20 seconds (from offset of the CS so that the onset of the US) Intertrial Interval = 10 minutes (also can have effects on contiguity)Frequencytrials: = 60 (frequency of associations or number of trials can affect strength of conditioningTest every 10th trialHow do we test?Let?s look at how the findings might have come outGraphY axis?X axis?Baseline
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Control Groups? ? Typically a learning experiment uses control groups.In the hypothetical Pavlovian experiment we have been discussing thus far, we already have a control condition. Baseline measurementIs that enough?What other controls would be important?ÿA group that receives the tone alone.CS alone control – A group that receives the meat powder in the absence of the tone.US alone controlAny increase in salivation in these control groups can be viewed as non-contingent learning. Sensitization?The US (meat powder) alone group may be particularly important so that rule out any unintended cues that indicate reinforcement is about so that occur. ConfoundsWhat other controls might be appropriate?Maybe just experiencing bells in addition to food sensitizes the animal in addition to gets them drooling.Either one alone is not enough, but both creates sensitization Remember 12 checks vs. 4 checks in infant study (chapter 2)How can we control in consideration of this?Three ways1) Backward Conditioning controlUS?CS may cause conditioning (learning).What kind?Known as inhibitory (we will discuss this more later)2) Random controlThe CS in addition to US occur randomlySometimes the CS will precede the US equally often the US will precede the CS.Also the temporal relationship between the CS in addition to US variesSeems it should prevent association of tone in addition to foodNevertheless sometimes the animals still associate3) Explicitly unpaired controlPresent CS in addition to US on separate trialsLength of ITI necessary – varies depending on taskMust be long (i.e., 24 hours in consideration of CTA)There is some debate about whether random or explicitly unpaired controls are best Some form of learning seems so that occur in all situations
conditioning a patellar reflex?E. B. Twitmeyer (1902)PhD thesis at University of PennsylvaniaZeitgeistCS?ToneUS?Tap kneeUR?KickWhen?CR?KickWhen?An introduction so that contemporary conditioning methodsThere are many ways so that examine Classical ConditioningIt?s not all slobbering dogsFear ConditioningLittle AlbertWatson in addition to RaynorConditioned Emotional ResponseAversive Conditioning vs. Appetitive ConditioningFear Conditioning in animals?How do we measure fear?Freezing behavior?How do you quantify it?Would be nice so that have initial activity so that serve as a baselineConditioned Suppression procedureslick suppression procedure Water deprivedMeasure licks on water bottlePresent fear stimulusslows licking Conditioned Emotional Response procedurePhase 1Train rat so that press lever so that receive food.Phase 2Pair tone alongside shockTestIntroduce tone while rat is lever pressing in consideration of food
Often use Suppression Ratio as Dependent Variable CS responding / (CS responding + pre-CS responding)Suppression ratios vary from 0 (complete fear) so that .50 (no fear at all)Lower suppression ratio = more fear 0/(0+10) = 0 ? complete fear 1/(1 + 10) = .09 ? almost complete fear10/(10+10) = .50 ? no fear at allConditioned eye-blink procedure.Often rabbitsbut has also been shown in rats in addition to humans.also aversive conditioning.CS, US, UR, CR?Taste Aversion Conditioningnovel flavor (CS; often saccharin or chocolate milk) CS?TasteUS?LiClUR?IllnessCR?IllnessHow do you measure this?
Conditioned Taste Aversionone-trial learninglong-delay learningEye-blink takes many many trials so that learnWhy the large difference?Preparedness so that learn?Sign Tracking (AKA ? autoshaping)Brown in addition to Jenkins (1968) Key light reliably predicts food ? Operant Chamber8 second Key light then FoodHow do you think the pigeons behaved?Pigeons pecked the keyremember pecking was not requiredThe Long Box Study = Hearst in addition to Jenkins (1974)Three feet longKey at one endFood at the otherVideoTemporal factors in conditioningShort Delayed Conditioning CS onset shortly precedes (less than a minute) US onset.ÿTrace conditioning a lag between CS offset in addition to US onset. closer = stronger the conditioning will betoo long = no conditioningÿLong delayed Conditioning CS onset occurs 5-10 minutes before US onset
Simultaneous conditioning CS in addition to US occur simultaneouslyultimate in contiguity. weaker conditioning than above ÿBackward Conditioning US offset occurs simultaneously alongside CS onset.Another example of contiguity of stimuli, Excitatory Conditioning?often results in inhibitory conditioning. What if CS = tone in addition to US =shock? How would you recognize inhibitory conditioning?Safety behaviorsIncreased activity during CS
Inhibitory ConditioningBackward US-CS pairings tend so that cause inhibitory conditioning.No salivation if food precedes the bellactivity ?safety? if the shock precedes the bellÿConditioned inhibition can be difficult so that measuresuch a small amount of initial behavior that it cannot be decreased.saliva special procedures are neededSummation testRetardation testIn the summation test an animal is trained in two ways.1) they are trained that one (CS-) is a conditioned inhibitor using backward conditioning. US(food)? CS1- (bell)2) they are trained that a second (CS+) is a conditioned exciter CS2+( light)?US(food).Need at least two groups summation group Control train US (food)?CS1- (bell) CS2+(light)?US(food) CS2+(light)?US(food)test CS1- in addition to CS2+ CS1- in addition to CS2+ Salivation so that CS1? Salivation so that CS2?Salivation so that CS1- in addition to CS2+?Note ? increasing the baseline (by conditioning salivation) allows us so that see thisIt is also interesting in its own right independent learning about CS+s in addition to CS-s can summate
Retardation testthis is a simple idea it should be more difficult so that train an excitatory response so that a stimulus that has become a conditioned inhibitor than it would be so that one that has not become a conditioned inhibitor retardation gp controlphase 1 US(food)?CS(bell)phase 2 (10 tr) CS(bell)?(food) CS(bell)?(food)test CS alone CS alone
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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Inhibitory ConditioningBackward US-CS pairings tend so that cause inhibitory conditioning.No salivation if food precedes the bellactivity ?safety? if the shock precedes the bellÿConditioned inhibition can be difficult so that measuresuch a small amount of initial behavior that it cannot be decreased.saliva special procedures are neededSummation testRetardation testIn the summation test an animal is trained in two ways.1) they are trained that one (CS-) is a conditioned inhibitor using backward conditioning. US(food)? CS1- (bell)2) they are trained that a second (CS+) is a conditioned exciter CS2+( light)?US(food).Need at least two groups summation group Control train US (food)?CS1- (bell) CS2+(light)?US(food) CS2+(light)?US(food)test CS1- in addition to CS2+ CS1- in addition to CS2+ Salivation so that CS1? Salivation so that CS2?Salivation so that CS1- in addition to CS2+?Note ? increasing the baseline (by conditioning salivation) allows us so that see thisIt is also interesting in its own right independent learning about CS+s in addition to CS-s can summate and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.