CHAPTER 3 Philosophies in addition to Frameworks Leaders in the Quality Revolution Whos Who EDWARD DEMING
McKinley, Maryel, Features & Book/DVD Review Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal CHAPTER 3 Philosophies in addition to Frameworks Leaders in the Quality Revolution W. Edwards Deming Joseph M. Juran Philip B. Crosby Arm in addition to V. Feigenbaum Kaoru Ishikawa Genichi Taguchi Whos Who Deming – Juran – Crosby –
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EDWARD DEMING Dr. W. Edwards Deming is known as the father of the Japanese post-war industrial revival in addition to was regarded by many as the leading quality guru in the United States. He passed on in 1993. Dr. Deming helped Japan construct the global economic jargon that has been emulated in addition to copied around the world. In Japan today, there is no greater honour than to be awarded the The Deming Prize. Demings work in Japan following World War II that made him famous, at least in Japan. In 1949 the Union of Japanese Scientists in addition to Engineers (JUSE) asked Deming to come to Japan to help increase productivity. He went in 1950 in addition to gave eight lectures to 230 of Japans leading industrialists. (Eighty percent of Japans capital was controlled by the men in that room, Deming claims.) Ironically, it was the same course he had taught Americans during the war. They asked Deming how long it would take to shift the perception of the world from the existing paradigm that Japan produced cheap, shoddy imitations to one of producing innovative quality products. He trained as a statistician, his expertise was used during World War II to assist the United States in its ef as long as t to improve the quality of war materials. Dr. Deming told the group that if they would follow his directions, they could achieve the desired outcome in five years. Few of the leaders believed him. But they were ashamed to say so in addition to would be embarrassed if they failed to follow his suggestions. As Dr. Deming told it, “They surprised me in addition to did it in four years.” He was invited back to Japan time after time where he became a revered counsellor. For his ef as long as ts he was awarded the Second Order of the Sacred Treasure by the as long as mer Emperor Hirohito. In 1950 the annual Deming Prize(s) were established by the Union of Japanese Scientists in addition to Engineers (JUSE).
Deming Chain Reaction Improve quality Costs decrease Productivity improves Increase market share with better quality in addition to lower prices Stay in business Provide jobs in addition to more jobs Key Idea The Deming philosophy focuses on continual improvements in product in addition to service quality by reducing uncertainty in addition to variability in design, manufacturing, in addition to service processes, driven by the leadership of top management. Demings Quality Circle
The Deming Cycle Act Plan Study Do Plan (1 of 2) Define the process: its start, end, in addition to what it does. Describe the process: list the key tasks per as long as med in addition to sequence of steps, people involved, equipment used, environmental conditions, work methods, in addition to materials used. Describe the players: external in addition to internal customers in addition to suppliers, in addition to process operators. Define customer expectations: what the customer wants, when, in addition to where, as long as both external in addition to internal customers. Determine what historical data are available on process per as long as mance, or what data need to be collected to better underst in addition to the process. Plan (2 of 2) Describe the perceived problems associated with the process; as long as instance, failure to meet customer expectations, excessive variation, long cycle times, in addition to so on. Identify the primary causes of the problems in addition to their impacts on process per as long as mance. Develop potential changes or solutions to the process, in addition to evaluate how these changes or solutions will address the primary causes. Select the most promising solution(s).
Do Conduct a pilot study or experiment to test the impact of the potential solution(s). Identify measures to underst in addition to how any changes or solutions are successful in addressing the perceived problems. Study Examine the results of the pilot study or experiment. Determine whether process per as long as mance has improved. Identify further experimentation that may be necessary. Act Select the best change or solution. Develop an implementation plan: what needs to be done, who should be involved, in addition to when the plan should be accomplished. St in addition to ardize the solution, as long as example, by writing new st in addition to ard operating procedures. Establish a process to monitor in addition to control process per as long as mance.
Demings System of Profound Knowledge Appreciation as long as a system Underst in addition to ing variation Theory of knowledge Psychology The Deming Cycle Act Plan Study Do Systems Most organizational processes are cross-functional Parts of a system must work together Every system must have a purpose Management must optimize the system as a whole
Variation Many sources of uncontrollable variation exist in any process Excessive variation results in product failures, unhappy customers, in addition to unnecessary costs Statistical methods can be used to identify in addition to quantify variation to help underst in addition to it in addition to lead to improvements Theory of Knowledge Knowledge is not possible without theory Experience alone does not establish a theory, it only describes Theory shows cause- in addition to -effect relationships that can be used as long as prediction Psychology People are motivated intrinsically (hakiki) in addition to extrinsically(hariçten) Fear is demotivating Managers should develop pride in addition to joy in work
Demings 14 Points 1. Create in addition to publish a company mission statement in addition to commit to it. 2. Learn the new philosophy of TQM. 3. Use inspection to improve design & processes. 4. End business practices driven by price alone. 5. Constantly improve system of production in addition to service. 6. Institute training. 7. Teach in addition to institute quality leadership (guidance). 8. Drive out fear in addition to create trust. 9. Optimize team in addition to individual ef as long as ts. 10. Eliminate exhortations as long as work as long as ce Work to improve the system. 11. Eliminate numerical quotas in addition to Management by objective Focus on improvement. 12. Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship. 13. Encourage education in addition to self-improvement. 14. Take action to accomplish the trans as long as mation Jurans Quality Trilogy Quality planning Quality control Quality improvement
Key Idea Juran proposed a simple definition of quality: fitness as long as use. This definition of quality suggests that it should be viewed from both external in addition to internal perspectives; that is, quality is related to (1) product per as long as mance that results in customer satisfaction; (2) freedom from product deficiencies, which avoids customer dissatisfaction. Joseph Juran follows W Edward Deming, at least in time, as one of the major Quality Gurus. Indeed, he followed Deming to Japan where his name is just as illustrious as that of Deming. Juran was awarded the Order of the Sacred Treasure by the Emperor as long as his work in the development of quality in Japan. The difference between Juran in addition to Deming is really no more than emphasis. While the core of Deming’s work is his use of statistical tools to identify quality problems in addition to their causes, Juran centres upon the role of employees in quality management – indeed their involvement in addition to empowerment. Juran would not deny the utility of statistical techniques any more than Deming would deny the importance of employee empowerment. Juran’s ‘Quality Planning Road Map’ consists of the following steps: 1.Identify who are the customers. 2.Determine the needs of those customers. 3.Translate those needs into our language. 4.Develop a product that can respond to those needs. 5.Optimize the product features so as to meet our needs as well as customer needs. 6.Develop a process which is able to produce the product. 7.Optimize the process. 8.Prove that the process can produce the product under operating conditions. 9.Transfer the process to Operations.
Phillip B. Crosby Quality is free : Quality is free. Its not a gift, but it is free. What costs money are the unquality things – all the actions that involve not doing jobs right the first time. Philip Crosby who is recognised as one of the top gurus of quality. Crosby is best known as long as concepts like Do It Right the First Time, in addition to Zero Defects. Crosby is also recognized as a lecturer, an author, in addition to a businessman whose had over as long as ty years of h in addition to s on management experience. In his lecturers he describes how it is the manager role to make sure that the company, employees, in addition to themselves are successful. He relates his lectures back to real life situation that has happened to him. As an author he has written in addition to edited thirteen books, all that have been best sellers. His first book is the one he is probably most famous as long as as an author. The name of that book was Quality is Free. In 1996, he came out with a book that was named Quality is Still Free. Philip B. Crosby Absolutes of Quality Management: Quality means con as long as mance to requirements Problems are functional in nature Do the job right the first time Cost of quality is the only useful measurement Zero defects is the only per as long as mance st in addition to ard
Criteria as long as Per as long as mance Excellence Leadership Strategic Planning Customer in addition to Market Focus In as long as mation in addition to Analysis Human Resource Focus Process Management Business Results
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