Chapter 30 Fusion Welding Processes Fusion Welding Processes Oxyacetylene Flame

Chapter 30 Fusion Welding Processes Fusion Welding Processes Oxyacetylene Flame

Chapter 30 Fusion Welding Processes Fusion Welding Processes Oxyacetylene Flame

Stevens, Shannon, Morning Drive-Time Personality has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 30 Fusion Welding Processes Fusion Welding Processes Oxyacetylene Flame Types Figure 30.1 Three basic types of oxyacetylene flames used in oxyfuel-gas welding in addition to cutting operations: (a) neutral flame; (b) oxidizing flame; (c) carburizing, or reducing, flame. The gas mixture in (a) is basically equal volumes of oxygen in addition to acetylene. (d) The principle of the oxyfuel-gas welding operation.

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Oxyacetylene Torch Figure 30.2 (a) General view of in addition to (b) cross-section of a torch used in oxyacetylene welding. The acetylene valve is opened first; the gas is lit with a spark lighter or a pilot light; then the oxygen valve is opened in addition to the flame adjusted. (c) Basic equipment used in oxyfuel-gas welding. To ensure correct connections, all threads on acetylene fittings are left-h in addition to ed, whereas those as long as oxygen are right-h in addition to ed. Oxygen regulators are usually painted green, in addition to acetylene regulators red. Pressure-Gas Welding Process Figure 30.3 Schematic illustration of the pressure-gas welding process; (a) be as long as e, in addition to (b) after. Note the as long as mation of a flash at the joint, which can later be trimmed off. Gas-Tungsten Arc Welding Figure 30.4 (a) The gas tungsten-arc welding process, as long as merly known as TIG ( as long as tungsten inert gas) welding. (b) Equipment as long as gas tungsten-arc welding operations. Figure 30.5 The effect of polarity in addition to current type on weld beads: (a) dc current straight polarity; (b) dc current reverse polarity; (c) ac current.

Plasma-Arc Welding Process Figure 30.6 Two types of plasma-arc welding processes: (a) transferred, (b) nontransferred. Deep in addition to narrow welds can be made by this process at high welding speeds. Shielded-Metal Arc Welding Figure 30.7 Schematic illustration of the shielded metal-arc welding process. About 50% of all large-scale industrial welding operations use this process. Figure 30.8 A deep weld showing the buildup sequence of eight individual weld beads. Submerged-Arc Welding Figure 30.9 Schematic illustration of the submerged arc welding process in addition to equipment. The unfused flux is recovered in addition to reused.

Gas Metal-Arc Welding Figure 30.10 (a) Schematic illustration of the gas metal-arc welding process, as long as merly known as MIG ( as long as metal inert gas) welding. (b) Basic equipment used in gas metal-arc welding operations. Fluxed-Cored Arc-Welding Figure 30.11 Schematic illustration of the flux-cored arc welding process. This operation is similar to gas metal-arc welding, shown in Fig. 30.10. Electrogas-Welding Figure 30.12 Schematic illustration of the electrogas welding process.

Electroslag-Welding Figure 30.13 Equipment used as long as electroslag welding operations. Electrode Designations Weld Bead Comparison Figure 30.14 Comparison of the size of weld beads: (a) laser-beam or electron-beam welding, in addition to (b) tungsten-arc welding. Source: American Welding Society, Welding H in addition to book (8th ed.), 1991. (a) (b)

Example: Laser Welding of Razor Blades Figure 30.15 Detail of Gillette Sensor razor cartridge, showing laser spot welds. Flame Cutting Figure 30.16 (a) Flame cutting of steel plate with an oxyacetylene torch, in addition to a cross-section of the torch nozzle. (b) Cross-section of a flame-cut plate, showing drag lines. Weld Joint Structure Figure 30.17 Characteristics of a typical fusion-weld zone in oxyfuel-gas in addition to arc welding. Figure 30.18 Grain structure in (a) deep weld in addition to (b) shallow weld. Note that the grains in the solidified weld metal are perpendicular to their interface with the base metal (see also Fig. 10.3). (c) Weld bead on a cold-rolled nickel strip produced by a laser beam. (d) Microhardness (HV) profile across a weld bead.

Discontinuities in addition to Defects in Fusion Welds Figure 30.19 Examples of various discontinuities in fusion welds. Figure 30.19 Examples of various defects in fusion welds. Cracks in Welded Joints Figure 30.21 Types of cracks developed in welded joints. The cracks are caused by thermal stresses, similar to the development of hot tears in castings (see also Fig. 10.12). Crack in Weld Bead Figure 30.22 Crack in a weld bead. The two welded components were not allowed to contract freely after the weld was completed. Source: Courtesy of Packer Engineering.

Distortion of Parts After Welding Figure 30.23 Distortion of parts after welding. (a) Butt joints in addition to (b) fillet welds. Distortion is caused by differential thermal expansion in addition to contraction of different regions of the welded assembly. Residual Stresses in addition to Distortion Figure 30.24 Residual stresses developed in a straight butt joint. Note that the residual stresses in (b) must be internally balanced. (See also Fig. 2.29.) Figure 30.25 Distortion of a welded structure. Weld Testing Figure 30.26 (a) Specimen as long as longitudinal tension-shear testing; (b) specimen as long as transfer tension-shear testing; (c) wraparound bend test method; (d) three-point bending of welded specimens (see also Fig. 2.11).

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Welded Joints Figure 30.27 Examples of welded joints in addition to their terminology. Weld Symbols Figure 30.28 St in addition to ard identification in addition to symbols as long as welds. Weld Design Figure 30.29 Some design guidelines as long as welds. Source: After J.G. Bralla.

Example 30.2: Weld Designs Figure 30.30 Examples of weld designs used in Example 30.2.

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