Chapter 36 Quality Assurance, Testing, in addition to Inspection Life Expectancy of Some Pr

Chapter 36 Quality Assurance, Testing, in addition to Inspection Life Expectancy of Some Pr www.phwiki.com

Chapter 36 Quality Assurance, Testing, in addition to Inspection Life Expectancy of Some Pr

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Example of Robust Design Figure 36.1 A simple example of robust design. (a) Location of two mounting holes on a sheet-metal bracket where the deviation keeping the top surface of the bracket from being perfectly horizontal is ±. (b) New location of holes where the deviation (keeping the top surface of the bracket from being perfectly horizontal) is reduced to ±/2. Taguchi Loss Function in Television Sets Figure 36.2 (a) Objective-function value distribution of color density as long as television sets. (b) Taguchi loss function showing the average replacement cost per unit to correct quality problems. Source: Courtesy of G. Taguchi. Frequency Distributions Figure 36.3 (a) A histogram of the number of shafts measured in addition to their respective diameters. This type of curve is called a frequency distribution. (b) A normal distribution curve indicating areas within each range of st in addition to ard deviation. Note: The greater the range, the higher is the percentage of parts that fall within it.

Frequency Distribution Curve Figure 36.4 Frequency distribution curve showing lower in addition to upper limits. Statistical Quality Control Charts Figure 36.5 Control charts used in statistical quality control. The process shown is in good statistical control because all points fall within the lower in addition to upper control limits. In this illustration, the ample size is 5, in addition to the number of samples is 1.5. Constants as long as Control Charts

Control Charts Figure 36.6 Control charts. (a) Process negins to become out of control because of such factors as tool wear (drift). The tool is changed in addition to the process is then in statistical control. (b) Process parameters are not set properly; thus, all parts are around the upper control limit (shift in mean). (c) Process becomes out of control because of factors such as a change in the properties of the incoming material (shift in mean). Unstable in addition to Stable Processes Figure 36.7 Illustration of processes that are (a) unstable or out of control in addition to (b) stable or in control. Note in sketch (b) that all distributions have lower st in addition to ard deviations in addition to have means closer to the desired value. Source: After K. Crow. Operating-Characteristics Curve used in Acceptance Sampling Figure 36.8 A typical operating-characteristics curve used in acceptance sampling. The higher the percentage of defective parts, the lower is the probability of acceptance by the consumer. There are several methods of obtaining these curves.

Liquid-Penetrant Inspection Figure 36.9 Sequence of operations as long as liquid-penetrant inspection to detect the presence of cracks in addition to other flaws in a workpiece. Source: Metals H in addition to book, Desk Edition. Copyright © 1985, ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio. Used with permission. Magnetic-Particle Inspection Figure 36.10 Schematic illustration of magnetic-particle inspection of a part with a defect in it. Cracks that are in a direction parallel to the magnetic field (such as in A) would not be detected, whereas the others shown would. Cracks F, G, in addition to H are the easiest to detect. Source: Metals H in addition to book, Desk Edition, Copyright © 1985, ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio. Used with permission. Radiographic Inspection Methods Figure 36.11 Three methods of radiographic inspection: (a) conventional radiography, (b) digital radiography, in addition to (c) computed tomography. Source: Courtesy of Advanced Materials in addition to Processes, November 1990. ASM International.

Eddy-Flow Current Changes Figure 36.12 Changes in eddy-current flow caused by a defect in a workpiece. Source: Metals H in addition to book, Desk Edition, Copyright © 1985, ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio. Used with permission. Basic Optical System as long as Detecting Flaws in Radiography Figure 36.13 Schematic illustration of the basic optical system used in holography elements in radiography as long as detecting flaws in workpieces. Source: Metals H in addition to book, Desk Edition. Copyright © 1985, ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio. Used with permission.

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