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Chapter 4 ? Classical Conditioning: MechanismsImportant characteristics of
D’Youville College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Chapter 4 ? Classical Conditioning: MechanismsImportant characteristics of the CS in addition to US1) Novelty of CS in addition to USLatent Inhibitionassociation accountmemory accountRelease from LIUS preexposure2) Intensity/saliency of CS in addition to US3) CS/US relevance (belongingness)Garcia in addition to Koeling Bright Noisy Tasty waterBelongingness4) Stimulus SubstitutionHigher order conditioningFurther evidence in consideration of stimulus substitutionJenkins in addition to Moore (1973)Homeostasis RiccioSiegelCS in addition to US Novelty ÿWe learn about novel stimuli more quickly than familiar.First noticed by Pavlov.If the dog had had heard the bell a lot before it was harder in consideration of it so that learn the bell now predicted foodLatent Inhibition (CS preexposure effect) LI Group Forward control Random control Phase 1 CS Nothing Nothing Phase 2 CS ? US CS?US unpaired CS in addition to US Test CS alone CS alone CS aloneÿ LI Group Forward control Random control Phase 1 bell nothing nothing Phase 2 bell? food bell? food unpaired bell in addition to food Test bell alone bell alone bell alone
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Why are familiar stimuli less easily conditioned?1) The associative interference theoryPrior learning about the CS or US interferes alongside the animals ability so that learn new things about the CS or US.Learned irrelevance or safety?The animals learn the CS is irrelevant or safe in phase 1The Bell doesn?t lead so that anything good or badHabituationLet?s apply so that taste aversion LI group CTA group Backward controlphase 1 sacch nothing nothingphase 2 sacch ? LiCl sacch ? LiCl LiCl ? sacchtest sacch alone sacch alone sacch alonelearned irrelevance or safety the LI group saccharin is ?safe? in phase 1This ?safe? learning makes it harder so that learn that saccharin is now ?unsafe?Input problemCTA groupDidn?t learned saccharin is safe. neophobiawhich is confirmed2) A memory interference theory of Latent InhibitionPerhaps LI occurs because animals have learned two things equally wellThe CS is safeThe CS makes me IllWhat happens at test?LI groupmemories compete ?safe? in addition to ?bad? intermediate level of CR.CTA one memory ?bad? stronger CRBackward groupone memory ?safe? least CRThis is an output problem
Release from LI (Kraemer & Spear, 1992)Instead of testing right away wait in consideration of 21 daysLI is the same as CTA group. conditioned responding increasedwhy? Biological importance of memories?CS Safe?CS Dangerous?US preexposure effect US preexposure Forward control Random control Phase 1 US Nothing Nothing Phase 2 CS ? US CS?US unpaired CS in addition to US Test CS alone CS alone CS aloneÿ US preexposure Forward control Random control Phase 1 Food nothing nothing Phase 2 bell? food bell? food unpaired bell in addition to food Test bell alone bell alone bell aloneCS in addition to US Intensity in addition to SalienceWe have covered this beforelouder or brighter CSsmore flavorful or painful USsCan be manipulated indirectlySalt deprived rats taste aversions so that a salty substance Learn quickly
Limited wires. Bi-directional Open Collector Controller Encoding Controller Encoding Clock Synchronization Traditional synchronizer
CS-US Relevance, or BelongingnessBright ? Noisy ? Tasty WaterGarcia in addition to Koeling (1966)Group 1 ? bright noisy tasty ? LiClGroup 2 ? bright noisy tasty ? shock test both groups alongside a choice between bright noisy tastygroup 1 (LiCl) drink don?t drinkgroup 2 (Shock) don?t drink drinkthis illustrates species-specific differences in preparedness so that learntaste ? illnesssounds /sights ?pain.Pigeons?use sight more than taste in consideration of foragingcolor in addition to shape of seedslearn a visual cue (colored bead) goes alongside illness readily.Humans?spiders in addition to snakes ? shockHouses in addition to flowers ? shockWhat determines the nature of the Conditioned Response?The Stimulus Substitution model (Pavlov)The CS becomes a surrogate USThis is why the CR in addition to UR are typically the sameSalivation/SalivationThis is one explanation in consideration of how higher-order conditioning can occur.
Higher-Order Conditioning (Second-Order) Exp. Group Control Group phase 1 CS1 (light)?US (shock) CS1 (light) /US (Shock) randomphase 2 CS2 (tone)?CS1 (light) CS2 (tone) > CS1 (lightÿtest CS2 (tone) alone CS2 (tone) aloneÿCan you think of an example of higher order conditioning that we handle every day?Further evidence in consideration of stimulus substitutionDifferent US?s produce different UR?sFood? salivationShock ? withdrawal in addition to aversionPuff of air so that the eye ? eyeblinkJenkins in addition to Moore (1973)even subtle differences in the US can affect the nature of the conditioned response.PigeonsGP 1 GP 2Key light (8 s) ? Grain Key light (8 s) ? WaterWhat procedure is this?CS, US, UR, CR? CS, US, UR, CR?CR is pecking the key in both casesHow the pigeons pecked the key depended on the USFoodPeck like eatingRapid alongside beak closing when striking the keyWaterPeck like drinkingSlower alongside beak open in addition to swallowing behavior
Learning in addition to Homeostasis: A Special Case of Stimulus SubstitutionFor our bodies so that work well we often have so that maintain physiological parameters within some acceptable limit.e.g., Body temperature (98.6 degrees)Walter Cannon Introduced term Homeostasis physiological mechanisms that serve so that maintain critical aspects of the body within acceptable limits.What happens when we get cold? compensatory reactionWouldn?t it be more efficient, if we could anticipate when we are going so that get cold?Compensate ahead of time?Conditioned Cold Tolerance (Riccio et al.)CS, US, UR, CR?What if you tested them in a new room?Drugs in addition to Conditioned drug effects.It is well known that people also become tolerant so that the effects of a drugCould this tolerance also be context specific?Siegelinjected rats alongside 5.0 mg/kg of morphine every day in the same room (context)Increased body temperatureDecreased heart ratedecreased sensitivity so that painPaw lick latencyover time all of these responses decreasedtolerance
Was this tolerance the result of Pavlovian conditioning?How would you find out?test in a new environmentpaw lick latency went back uptemperature increasedheart rate decreasedCS, US, UR, CR?tolerance appears so that be at least in part conditionedbody learns so that compensate in consideration of the action of the drug in an attempt so that maintain homeostasis.ÿDrinking in bar at 10 pmDrinking at school at 10 amÿHeroin Addicts large tolerance in normal surroundings. take the same dose in a novel place Many OD patients reported taking drug in new placeSiegel has shown that rats are more likely so that die from high dose of a drug they are tolerant toIf in new environmentÿIf Seigel is correct typical classical conditioning findings should apply so that this situation.ExtinctionRepeated exposure so that the environmental cues (CS) in the absence of morphine (US). This has been shownWhat should happen if an animal had repeated exposure so that the testing environment before the drug was injected so that the animal?Known as?
Note – Conditioned Tolerance is usually demonstrated (tested) while presenting the US.using Novel CS2 vs. Trained CS1No tolerance in novel contextIts not your typical test alongside CS alone Conditioned withdrawal effectsThe result of a more traditional test of Pavlovian ConditioningCS aloneNote ? withdrawal effects are often opposite of drug effectsCocaine ? EuphoriaWithdrawal – DepressionRats trained alongside context ? MorphineTest alongside context alone?Showed increased withdrawalWet dog shakesPaw tremorsEar wipesHead shakesBody twitchesWhat if withdrawal occurs in new context?Decreased withdrawal
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