Chapter 4 Metal Alloys: Structure in addition to Strengthening by Heat Treatment Gear Teeth
Nu York,, Morning Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 4 Metal Alloys: Structure in addition to Strengthening by Heat Treatment Gear Teeth Cross-section Figure 4.1 Cross-section of gear teeth showing induction-hardened surfaces. Source: Courtesy of TOCCO Div., Park-Ohio Industries, Inc. Chapter 4 Topics Figure 4.2 Outline of topics described in Chapter 4.
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Two Phase Systems Figure 4.3 (a) Schematic illustration of grains, grain boundaries, in addition to particles dispersed throughout the structure of a two-phase system, such as a lead-copper alloy. The grains represent lead in solid solution in copper, in addition to the particles are lead as a second phase. (b) Schematic illustration of a two-phase system consisting of two sets of grains: dark in addition to light. The dark in addition to the light grains have separate compositions in addition to properties. Cooling of Metals Figure 4.4 (a) Cooling curve as long as the solidification of pure metals. Note that freezing takes place at a constant temperature; during freezing, the latent heat of solidification is given off. (b) Change in density during the cooling of pure metals. Phase Diagram as long as Nickel-copper Alloy System Figure 4.5 Phase diagram as long as nickel-copper alloy system obtained at a slow rate of solidification. Note that pure nickel in addition to pure copper each has one freezing or melting temperature. The top circle on the right depicts the nucleation of crystals. The second circle shows the as long as mation of dendrites (see Section 10.2). The bottom circle shows the solidified alloy with grain boundaries.
Mechanical Properties of Copper Alloys Figure 4.6 Mechanical properties of copper-nickel in addition to copper-zinc alloys as a function of their composition. The curves as long as zinc are short, because zinc has a maximum solid solubility of 40% in copper. Lead-tin Phase Diagram Figure 4.7 The lead-tin phase diagram. Note that the composition of eutectic point as long as this alloy is 61.9% Sn 38.1% Pb. A composition either lower or higher than this ratio will have a higher liquidus temperature. Iron-iron Carbide Phase Diagram Figure 4.8 The iron-iron carbide phase diagram. Because of the importance of steel as an engineering material, this diagram is one of the most important of all phase diagrams.
Unit Cells Figure 4.9 The unit cells as long as (a) austenite, (b) ferrite, in addition to (c) martensite. The effect of percentage of carbon (by weight) on the lattice dimensions as long as martensite is shown in (d). Note the interstitial position of the carbon atoms (see Fig. 1.9). Also note, the increase in dimension c with increasing carbon content: this effect causes the unit cell of martensite to be in the shape of a rectangular prism. Microstructures as long as an Iron-Carbon Alloy Figure 4.10 Schematic illustration of the microstructures as long as an iron-carbon alloy of eutectoid composition (0.77% carbon) above in addition to below the eutectoid temperature of 727°C (1341°F). Microstructure of Steel Formed from Eutectoid Composition Figure 4.11 Microstructure of pearlite in 1080 steel as long as med from austenite of a eutectoid composition. In this lamellar structure, the lighter regions are ferrite, in addition to the darker regions are carbide. Magnification: 2500x.
Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram with Graphite Figure 4.12 Phase diagram as long as the iron-carbon system with graphite (instead of cementite) as the stable phase. Note that this figure is an extended version of Fig. 4.8. Microstructure as long as Cast Irons Figure 4.13 Microstructure as long as cast irons. Magnification: 100x. (a) Ferritic gray iron with graphite flakes. (b) Ferritic ductile iron (nodular iron) with graphite in nodular as long as m. (c) Ferritic malleable iron. This cast iron solidified as white cast iron with the carbon present as cementite in addition to was heat treated to graphitize the carbon. Microstructure of Eutectoid Steel Figure 4.14 Microstructure of eutectoid steel. Spheroidite is as long as med by tempering the steel at 700°C (1292°F). Magnification: 1000x.
Martensite Figure 4.15 (a) Hardness of martensite as a function of carbon content. (b) Micrograph of martensite containing 0.8% carbon. The gray plate-like regions are martensite; they have the same composition as the original austenite (white regions). Magnification: 1000x. Hardness of Tempered Martensite Figure 4.16 Hardness of tempered martensite as a function of tempering time as long as the 1080 steel quenched to 65 HRC. Hardness decreases because the carbide particles coalesce in addition to grow in size, thereby increasing the interparticle distance of the softer ferrite. Time-temperature-trans as long as mation diagrams Figure 4.17 (a) Austenite-to-pearlite trans as long as mation of iron-carbon alloy as a function of time in addition to temperature. (b) Isothermal trans as long as mation diagram obtained from (a) as long as a trans as long as mation temperature of 675°C (1274°F). (c) Microstructures obtained as long as a eutectoid iron-carbon alloy as a function of cooling rate.
Hardness in addition to Toughness in Steel as a Function of Carbide Shape Figure 4.18 (a) in addition to (b) Hardness in addition to (c) toughness as long as annealed plain-carbon steel as a function of a carbide shape. Carbides in the pearlite are lamellar. Fine pearlite is obtained by increasing the cooling rate. The spheroidite structure has sphere-like carbide particles. Mechanical Properties of Steel as a Function of Composition in addition to Microstructure Figure 4.19 Mechanical properties of annealed steels as a function of composition in addition to microstructure. Note in (a) the increase in hardness in addition to strength in addition to in (b) the decrease in ductility in addition to toughness with increasing amounts of pearlite in addition to iron carbide. End-Quench Hardenability Test Figure 4.20 (a) End-quench test in addition to cooling rate. (b) Hardenability curves as long as five different steels, as obtained from the end-quench test. Small variations in composition can change the shape of these curves. Each curve is actually a b in addition to , in addition to its exact determination is important in the heat treatment of metals as long as better control of properties.
Phase Diagram as long as Aluminum-copper Alloy in addition to Obtained Microstructures Figure 4.21 (a) Phase diagram as long as the aluminum-copper alloy system. (b) Various microstructures obtained during the age-hardening process. Effect of Time in addition to Temperature on Yield Stress Figure 4.22 The effect of again time in addition to temperature on the yield stress of 2014-T4 aluminum alloy. Note that, as long as each temperature, there is an optimal aging time as long as maximum strength. Outline of Heat Treatment Processes as long as Surface Hardening
Outline of Heat Treatment Processes as long as Surface Hardening, cont. Heat-treating Temperature Ranges as long as Plain-Carbon Steels Figure 4.23 Heat-treating temperature ranges as long as plain-carbon steels, as indicated on the iron-iron carbide phase diagram. Hardness of Steel as a Function of Carbon Content Figure 4.24 Hardness of steels in the quenched in addition to normalized conditions as a function of carbon content.
Mechanical Properties of Steel as a Function of Tempering Temperature Figure 4.25 Mechanical properties of oil-quenched 4340 steel as a function of tempering temperature.
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