Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell The MAIN Concept: Structure = Function!!! PS. See t
Murphy, Matt, Morning On-Air Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell The MAIN Concept: Structure = Function!!! PS. See the Key Concepts as long as CH 6 on p 94 of Campbell 7th ed The Cell Theory 1662: Invention of the microscope; Robert Hooke; cork appeared as a “a great many little boxes” (or “celles) 1673: Anton van Leewenhook; pond water: “Little eels, or worms, lying all huddled up together in addition to wriggily, in addition to the whole water seemed to be alive with these animalcules in addition to cells fill’d with juices. 1839 Matthias Schleiden in addition to Theodor Schwann, brought 200 years of scattered observations together into a simple, testable Cell Theory: The cell is the fundamental unit of life. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. All cells come from preexisting cells. (Pasteur 1859 – Death of Spontaneous Generation What defines a cell A cell Figure 6.6 A prokaryotic cell: The Worlds First Cell! Fossils 3.6-3.8 BYA Check out CELLS ALIVE! Cells per as long as m all of the 5 activities of life! They also eat, swim, reproduce, beat, protect your body, kill other cells, infect your body, etc
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Figure 6.9 A Typical Eukaryotic Cell A hallmark of the eukaryotic cell: COMPARTMENTALIZATION – organelles! Characteristic of Plant Cells: 1. Cellulose cell wall 2. Plastids 3. Large central vacuole 4. Plasmodesmata Organelles Figure 6.10 The nucleus in addition to its envelope Pore complexes (TEM). Nuclear lamina (TEM) inside the nuclear envelope. Nucleus Nucleus Nucleolus Chromatin Nuclear envelope: Inner Outer Nuclear pore Pore complex Surface of nuclear envelope. Close-up of nuclear envelope Ribosome 1 µm 1 µm 0.25 µm
Figure 6.16 Overview: The endomembrane system Golgi pinches off transport vesicles, sorts to Vacuoles, Lysosomes, in addition to Plasma membranes Transport vesicles (proteins + membranes from the ER) flow to the cis face of the Golgi 3 4 5 Nuclear envelope is connected to rough ER, which is also continuous with smooth ER 2 3 Rough ER cis Golgi trans Golgi 1 3 4 2 5 5 2 3 4 5 Nucleus Rough ER Smooth ER Plasma membrane exp in addition to s by fusion of vesicles; proteins Can be secreted from cell Plasma membrane 6 cis Golgi trans Golgi Figure 6.12 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Smooth ER Rough ER ER lumen Cisternae Ribosomes Transport vesicle Smooth ER Rough ER 200 µm Nuclear envelope Function of the rER: Rough appearance due ribosomes in the process of threading new proteins Into the ER lumen. Function of the sER: Figure 6.13 The Golgi: Sorting in addition to shipping cis face (receiving side of Golgi apparatus) Vesicles move from ER to Golgi Vesicles transport certain proteins back to ER Vesicles coalesce Cisternal maturation: Contents move cis-to-trans Vesicles carry proteins to final location Cisternae (channels) trans face (shipping side of Golgi apparatus) TEM of Golgi apparatus 0.1 0 µm 4 Function of the Golgi:
Figure 6.14 Lysosomes Lysosome Nucleus 1 µm Lysosome with potent hydrolytic enzymes fuses with food vacuole digesting food particles Lysosome digesting two damaged organelles 1 µ m Mitochondrion fragment Peroxisome fragment Lysosome fuses with damaged organelle digesting organelle components Vesicle containing damaged mitochondrion Digestion Food vacuole Plasma membrane Lysosome (a) Phagocytosis: lysosome digesting food (b) Autophagy: lysosome digesting damaged organelle Lysosome Digestion Lysosome Lets watch the movie! (Tay-sachs is a Lysosomal storage disease) Function of Lysosomes: Plasma membrane (1) Microtubule (3) Intermediate filament (2) Microfilament Just under the plasma membrane – All function to maintain cell shape in addition to regulate organelle movement Microtubules: Hollow tubes, made of –. Important roles in cell division (centriole), cell motility (beating of flagella in addition to cilia), crawling of organelles in addition to vesicles. (2) Microfilaments: Intertwined str in addition to s of — Important roles in muscle contraction, cell division (cleavage furrow), amoeboid movement (pseudopods) (3) Intermediate filaments: Supercoiled cables of —-. Form nuclear lamina, anchor nucleus. Figure 6.20 in addition to Table 6.1 The cytoskeleton Figure 6.7 Geometric relationships between surface area in addition to volume Why are cells so small
Objectives as long as Ch 6: A Tour of The Cell Explain the Cell Theory in addition to its three main parts Compare in addition to contrast the general characteristics of prokaryotic cells with eukaryotic cells. Describe the structure in addition to functions of the nucleus in addition to its components. Endomembrane system – structure in addition to function: Distinguish between smooth in addition to rough endoplasmic reticulum sER, rER) in terms of both structure in addition to function. Trace the path of proteins synthesized in the rER as they are subsequently processed, modified, in addition to sorted by the Golgi complex in addition to then transported to specific destinations. Describe the structure in addition to functions of lysosomes, peroxisomes, in addition to vacuoles. Compare the general functions in addition to structure of mitochondria in addition to chloroplasts Describe the structure in addition to functions of the cytoskeleton, including microtubules, microfilaments, in addition to intermediate filaments. Describe the relationship between surface area in addition to volume, in addition to solve simple problems on surface-to-volume ratio.
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