Chapter 9 Solids in addition to Fluids States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Solids Has

Chapter 9 Solids in addition to Fluids States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Solids Has

Chapter 9 Solids in addition to Fluids States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Solids Has

Epstein, Jack, Foreign Service and World Wire Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 9 Solids in addition to Fluids States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Solids Has definite volume Has definite shape Molecules are held in specific locations by electrical as long as ces vibrate about equilibrium positions Can be modeled as springs connecting molecules

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More About Solids External as long as ces can be applied to the solid in addition to compress the material In the model, the springs would be compressed When the as long as ce is removed, the solid returns to its original shape in addition to size This property is called elasticity Crystalline Solid Atoms have an ordered structure This example is salt Gray spheres represent Na+ ions Green spheres represent Cl- ions Amorphous Solid Atoms are arranged almost r in addition to omly Examples include glass

Liquid Has a definite volume No definite shape Exists at a higher temperature than solids The molecules “w in addition to er” through the liquid in a r in addition to om fashion The intermolecular as long as ces are not strong enough to keep the molecules in a fixed position Gas Has no definite volume Has no definite shape Molecules are in constant r in addition to om motion The molecules exert only weak as long as ces on each other Average distance between molecules is large compared to the size of the molecules Plasma Matter heated to a very high temperature Many of the electrons are freed from the nucleus Result is a collection of free, electrically charged ions Plasmas exist inside stars

De as long as mation of Solids All objects are de as long as mable It is possible to change the shape or size (or both) of an object through the application of external as long as ces when the as long as ces are removed, the object tends to its original shape This is a de as long as mation that exhibits elastic behavior Elastic Properties Stress is the as long as ce per unit area causing the de as long as mation Strain is a measure of the amount of de as long as mation The elastic modulus is the constant of proportionality between stress in addition to strain For sufficiently small stresses, the stress is directly proportional to the strain The constant of proportionality depends on the material being de as long as med in addition to the nature of the de as long as mation Elastic Modulus The elastic modulus can be thought of as the stiffness of the material A material with a large elastic modulus is very stiff in addition to difficult to de as long as m Analogous to the spring constant

Young’s Modulus: Elasticity in Length Tensile stress is the ratio of the external as long as ce to the cross-sectional area Tensile is because the bar is under tension The elastic modulus is called Young’s modulus Young’s Modulus, cont. SI units of stress are Pascals, Pa 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 The tensile strain is the ratio of the change in length to the original length Strain is dimensionless Young’s Modulus, final Young’s modulus applies to a stress of either tension or compression It is possible to exceed the elastic limit of the material No longer directly proportional Ordinarily does not return to its original length

Breaking If stress continues, it surpasses its ultimate strength The ultimate strength is the greatest stress the object can withst in addition to without breaking The breaking point For a brittle material, the breaking point is just beyond its ultimate strength For a ductile material, after passing the ultimate strength the material thins in addition to stretches at a lower stress level be as long as e breaking Shear Modulus: Elasticity of Shape Forces may be parallel to one of the object’s faces The stress is called a shear stress The shear strain is the ratio of the horizontal displacement in addition to the height of the object The shear modulus is S Shear Modulus, final S is the shear modulus A material having a large shear modulus is difficult to bend

Bulk Modulus: Volume Elasticity Bulk modulus characterizes the response of an object to uni as long as m squeezing Suppose the as long as ces are perpendicular to, in addition to act on, all the surfaces Example: when an object is immersed in a fluid The object undergoes a change in volume without a change in shape Bulk Modulus, cont. Volume stress, P, is the ratio of the as long as ce to the surface area This is also the Pressure The volume strain is equal to the ratio of the change in volume to the original volume Bulk Modulus, final A material with a large bulk modulus is difficult to compress The negative sign is included since an increase in pressure will produce a decrease in volume B is always positive The compressibility is the reciprocal of the bulk modulus

Notes on Moduli Solids have Young’s, Bulk, in addition to Shear moduli Liquids have only bulk moduli, they will not undergo a shearing or tensile stress The liquid would flow instead Ultimate Strength of Materials The ultimate strength of a material is the maximum as long as ce per unit area the material can withst in addition to be as long as e it breaks or fractures Some materials are stronger in compression than in tension Post in addition to Beam Arches A horizontal beam is supported by two columns Used in Greek temples Columns are closely spaced Limited length of available stones Low ultimate tensile strength of sagging stone beams

Epstein, Jack San Francisco Chronicle Foreign Service and World Wire Editor

Semicircular Arch Developed by the Romans Allows a wide roof span on narrow supporting columns Stability depends upon the compression of the wedge-shaped stones Gothic Arch First used in Europe in the 12th century Extremely high The flying buttresses are needed to prevent the spreading of the arch supported by the tall, narrow columns Density The density of a substance of uni as long as m composition is defined as its mass per unit volume: Units are kg/m3 (SI) or g/cm3 (cgs) 1 g/cm3 = 1000 kg/m3

Density, cont. The densities of most liquids in addition to solids vary slightly with changes in temperature in addition to pressure Densities of gases vary greatly with changes in temperature in addition to pressure Specific Gravity The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density to the density of water at 4° C The density of water at 4° C is 1000 kg/m3 Specific gravity is a unitless ratio Pressure The as long as ce exerted by a fluid on a submerged object at any point if perpendicular to the surface of the object

Sedimentation Rate The speed at which materials fall through a fluid is called the sedimentation rate It is important in clinical analysis The rate can be increased by increasing the effective value of g This can be done in a centrifuge Centrifuge High angular speeds give the particles a large radial acceleration Much greater than g In the equation, g is replaced with w2r Centrifuge, cont The particles’ terminal velocity will become The particles with greatest mass will have the greatest terminal velocity The most massive particles will settle out on the bottom of the test tube first

Epstein, Jack Foreign Service and World Wire Editor

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