Chapter 9 Topics Part 2: Climate Change Part 3: Climate in addition to Air Pollution Part 4: Interactions Between Climate Processes in addition to Air Pollution Part 5: Effects of Air Pollution
Munsey, Dave, Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 9: Air: Climate in addition to Pollution Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required as long as reproduction or display. The Atmosphere in addition to Climate Climate Change Climate in addition to Air Pollution Interactions Between Climate Processes in addition to Air Pollution Effects of Air Pollution Air Pollution Control Clean Air Legislation Current Conditions in addition to Future Prospects Chapter 9 Topics Part 1: The Atmosphere in addition to Climate
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The atmosphere has four distinct zones of contrasting temperature. Energy in addition to the “Greenhouse Effect” Convection in addition to Atmospheric Pressure Evaporation Latent heat Condensation Convection currents Air pressure differences Coriolis effect
Tornadoes are local cyclonic storms caused by rapid mixing of cold, dry air in addition to warm, wet air.
Seasonal Winds in addition to Monsoons Part 2: Climate Change The Earth’s climate changes, often in short or long cycles. Ice ages, droughts Milankovitch cycles, orbital shifts, sunspot cycles, ocean currents Climate does not necessarily change gradually – meteor impacts, methane releases
Milankovitch cycles Human-Caused Global Climate Change Global mean surface temperatures have increased about 0.9 degrees F over the past 100 years. Much of this change is now understood to result from a number of human activities, primarily the burning of oil, gas, in addition to coal. CO2 levels are increasing 0.5% a year.
Carbon dioxide levels are increasing Possible Implications of in addition to Debate Surrounding Global Warming More heat waves More extreme storm activity Changes in rainfall, snowfall patterns Ecosystem effects Higher sea levels More disease Winners: Siberia, Sc in addition to inavia Losers: most of U.S. (particularly SE; Washington may be nicer), isl in addition to states Skepticism Kyoto Protocol
Part 3: Climate in addition to Air Pollution Over the past 20 years, developed countries have made progress in improving air quality. Un as long as tunately, air quality in the developing world has been getting worse. Major Air Pollutants: Problems Sulfur dioxide – acid rain, health damage, visibility reduction Nitrogen oxides – acid rain, eutrophication, growth of weedy species Carbon monoxide – inhibited respiration Lead in addition to mercury – neurological damage Chlorofluorocarbons – ozone depletion Particulate matter – lung damage, cancer Volatile organic compounds – CO, CO2 production in the atmosphere Indoor Air Pollution Smoking – diseases related to smoking responsible as long as 20% of deaths in the U.S. In less-developed countries, poorly ventilated heating in addition to cooking fires represent the greatest source of indoor air pollution.
Long-range transport Stratospheric ozone depletion Montreal Protocol – 1987 Temperature inversions Heat isl in addition to s, dust domes Part 4: Interactions Between Climate Processes in addition to Air Pollution Part 5: Effects of Air Pollution Human health Plant pathology Visibility reduction Acid deposition
Ecosystem damage caused by sulfur dioxide emissions in addition to acid rain. Acid Precipitation, 2000
Part 6: Air Pollution Control Early approach: “Dilution is the solution to pollution” Particulate removal – air filters Sulfur removal – scrubbers Nitrogen oxide reduction – catalytic converters Hydrocarbon controls – afterburners Part 7: Clean Air Legislation Clean Air Act of 1963 Clean Air Act of 1970 – primary in addition to secondary st in addition to ards as long as ambient air quality 1990 update – significant amendments Controversy Cali as long as nia – additional pollution control plans
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