Chapter Overview Atomic Structure Water molecule Hydrogen Bonding Hydrogen Bonding

Chapter Overview Atomic Structure Water molecule Hydrogen Bonding Hydrogen Bonding www.phwiki.com

Chapter Overview Atomic Structure Water molecule Hydrogen Bonding Hydrogen Bonding

Young, Jene’, Meteorologist and Reporter has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal CHAPTER 5 Water in addition to Seawater Chapter Overview Water has many unique thermal in addition to dissolving properties. Seawater is mostly water molecules but has dissolved substances. Ocean is layered by salinity in addition to density differences. Atomic Structure Atoms – building blocks of all matter Subatomic particles Protons Neutrons Electrons Number of protons distinguishes chemical elements

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Water molecule Strong covalent bonds between one hydrogen (H) in addition to two oxygen (O) atoms Both H atoms on same side of O atom Dipolar Hydrogen Bonding Polarity means small negative charge at O end Small positive charge at H end Attraction between positive in addition to negative ends of water molecules to each other or other ions Hydrogen Bonding Hydrogen bonds are weaker than covalent bonds but still strong enough to result in High water surface tension High solubility of chemical compounds in water Unusual thermal properties of water Unusual density of water

Water as Solvent Water molecules stick to other polar molecules. Electrostatic attraction produces ionic bond. Water can dissolve almost anything. Hydration Water’s Thermal Properties Water is solid, liquid, in addition to gas at Earth’s surface. Water influences Earth’s heat budget. Water’s Three States of Matter

Heat, Temperature, in addition to Changes of State Van der Waals as long as ces Energy must be added as long as molecules to overcome attractions. Heat Energy of moving molecules Calorie is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1°C. Temperature is a measurement of average kinetic energy. Freezing in addition to Boiling Points Freezing point = melting point: 0°C (32°F) Boiling point = condensation point: 100°C (212°F) Freezing in addition to boiling points of water unusually high

Water’s Heat Capacity in addition to Specific Heat Heat Capacity – amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of any substance by 1°C Water has a high heat capacity – can take in or lose much heat without changing temperature Specific Heat – heat capacity per unit mass Latent Heat Water has high latent heats Vaporization/condensation Melting/freezing Evaporation Global Thermostatic Effects Moderate temperature on Earth’s surface Equatorial oceans do not boil Polar oceans do not freeze solid Marine effect Oceans moderate temperature changes from day to night in addition to during different seasons Continental effect L in addition to areas have greater range of temperatures from day to night in addition to during different seasons

Day/Night Temperature Differences Water Density Density of water increases as temperature decreases. Thermal contraction From 4°C to 0°C the density of water decreases as temperature decreases. Ice is less dense than water. Changes in molecular packing Water exp in addition to s as it freezes. Water Density in addition to Temperature

Water Density Increasing pressure or adding dissolved substances decreases the maximum density temperature. Dissolved solids also reduce the freezing point of water. Most seawater never freezes. Salinity Total amount of dissolved solids in water including dissolved gases Excludes dissolved organics Ratio of mass of dissolved substances to mass of water sample Salinity Expressed in parts per thous in addition to (ppt) Typical ocean salinity is 35 ppt (o/oo)

Seawater Determining Salinity Evaporation Chemical analysis–titration Principle of constant proportions Major dissolved constituents in same proportion regardless of total salinity Measure amount of halogens (Cl, Br, I, F) (chlorinity) Salinity = 1.80655 Chlorinity (ppt) Electrical conductivity Salinometer Pure Water vs. Seawater

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Salinity Variations Open-ocean salinity is 33–38 o/oo In coastal areas salinity varies more widely. An influx of freshwater lowers salinity or creates brackish conditions. A greater rate of evaporation raises salinity or creates hypersaline conditions. Salinity may vary with seasons (dry/rain). Processes Affecting Salinity Decreasing salinity – adding fresh water to ocean Runoff, melting icebergs, melting sea ice Precipitation Increasing salinity – removing water from ocean Sea ice as long as mation Evaporation Processes Affecting Salinity

Earth’s Water 97.2% in the world ocean 2.15% frozen in glaciers in addition to ice caps 0.62% in groundwater in addition to soil moisture 0.02% in streams in addition to lakes 0.001% as water vapor in the atmosphere Earth’s Hydrologic Cycle Residence Time Average length of time a substance remains dissolved in seawater Ions with long residence time are in high concentration in seawater. Ions with short residence time are in low concentration in seawater. Steady state condition

End of CHAPTER 5 Water in addition to Seawater

Young, Jene’ Meteorologist and Reporter

Young, Jene’ is from United States and they belong to News 5 at 6 PM Saturday – WKRG-TV and they are from  Mobile, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Young, Jene’ deal with the subjects like Environment; Meteorology

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