Chapter Overview Bathymetry Measuring Bathymetry Measuring Bathymetry Echo Sounding Record

Chapter Overview Bathymetry Measuring Bathymetry Measuring Bathymetry Echo Sounding Record www.phwiki.com

Chapter Overview Bathymetry Measuring Bathymetry Measuring Bathymetry Echo Sounding Record

Vernon, Connor, Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal CHAPTER 3 Marine Provinces Chapter Overview The study of bathymetry charts ocean depths in addition to ocean floor topography. Echo sounding in addition to satellites are efficient bathymetric tools. Most ocean floor features are generated by plate tectonic processes. Bathymetry Measures the vertical distance from the ocean surface to mountains, valleys, plains, in addition to other sea floor features

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Measuring Bathymetry Soundings Poseidonus first sounding 85 B.C. Line with heavy weight Sounding lines used as long as 2000 years Unit of measure is a fathom 1.8 meters (6 feet) First systematic measurements – HMS Challenger 1872 Measuring Bathymetry Echo Soundings Echo sounder or fathometer Reflection of sound signals German ship Meteor identified mid-Atlantic ridge in 1925 Lacks detail May provide inaccurate view of sea floor Echo Sounding Record

Measuring Bathymetry Precision Depth Recorder (PDR) 1950s Focused high frequency sound beam First reliable sea floor maps produced Helped confirm sea floor spreading Measuring Bathymetry Modern Acoustic Instruments Side scan sonar GLORIA (Geological Long-range Inclined Acoustical instrument) Sea MARC (Sea Mapping in addition to Remote Characterization) Can be towed behind ship to provide very detailed bathymetric strip map Multi-beam echo sounder Seabeam Side Scanning Sonar

Sea Floor Mapping from Space Uses satellite measurements Measures sea floor features based on gravitational bulges in sea surface Indirectly reveals bathymetry Measuring Bathymetry Seismic Reflection Profiles Air guns Strong, low-frequency sounds Details ocean structure beneath sea floor Seismic Reflection Profile

Hypsographic Curve Shows relationship between height of l in addition to in addition to depth of ocean Hypsographic Curve 70.8% of Earth covered by oceans Average ocean depth is 3729 meters Average l in addition to elevation is 840 meters Uneven distribution of areas of different depths/elevations Variations suggest plate tectonics at work Ocean Provinces Three Major Provinces Continental margins Shallow-water areas close to shore Deep-ocean basins Deep-water areas farther from l in addition to Mid-ocean ridge Submarine mountain range

Ocean Provinces Continental Margins Passive or Active Passive Not close to any plate boundary No major tectonic activity Example: East coast of United States Active Associated with convergent or trans as long as m plate boundaries Much tectonic activity Active Continental Margins Convergent or Trans as long as m Convergent Active Margin Oceanic-continent convergent plate boundaries Active continental volcanoes Narrow shelf Offshore trench Example: Western South America

Active Continental Margins Trans as long as m Continental Margin Less common Trans as long as m plate boundaries Linear isl in addition to s, banks, in addition to deep basins close to shore Example: Coastal Cali as long as nia along San Andreas Fault Passive in addition to Active Continental Margins Continental Margin Features Continental shelf Shelf break Continental slope Continental rise

Passive Continental Margin Features Continental Shelf Flat zone from shore to shelf break Shelf break is where marked increase in slope angle occurs Geologically part of continent Average width is 70 km (43 miles) but can extend to 1500 km (930 miles) Average depth of shelf break is 135 meters (443 feet) Continental Shelf The type of continetnal margin determines the shelf features. Passive margins have wider shelves. Cali as long as nia’s trans as long as m active margin has a continental borderl in addition to .

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Continental Slope Where deep ocean basins begin Topography similar to l in addition to mountain ranges Greater slope than continental shelf Averages 4° but varies from 1–25° gradient Marked by submarine canyons Submarine Canyons Narrow, deep, v-shaped in profile Steep to overhanging walls Extend to base of continental slope, 3500 meters (11,500 feet) below sea level. Carved by turbidity currents Turbidity Currents Underwater avalanches mixed with rocks in addition to other debris Sediment from continental shelf Moves under influence of gravity Sediments deposited at slope base

Continental Rise Transition between continental crust in addition to oceanic crust Marked by turbidite deposits from turbidity currents Graded bedding in turbidite deposits Deposits generate deep-sea fans, or submarine fans Distal ends of submarine fans becomes flat abyssal plains Abyssal Plains Extend from base of continental rise Some of the deepest, flattest parts of Earth Suspension settling of very fine particles Sediments cover ocean crust irregularities Well-developed in Atlantic in addition to Indian oceans Abyssal Plains

Oceanic Isl in addition to s Volcanic activity Hotspots Isl in addition to arcs End of CHAPTER 3 Marine Provinces

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