Chapter Overview Classification of Life Classification of Living Organisms Five Kingdoms of Organisms Five Kingdoms of Organisms

Chapter Overview Classification of Life Classification of Living Organisms Five Kingdoms of Organisms Five Kingdoms of Organisms www.phwiki.com

Chapter Overview Classification of Life Classification of Living Organisms Five Kingdoms of Organisms Five Kingdoms of Organisms

Whatley, Clanci, Midday On-Air Personality has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal CHAPTER 12 Marine Life in addition to the Marine Environment Chapter Overview There are more than 250,000 identified marine species. Most live in sunlit surface seawater. A species’ success depends on the ability to find food, avoid predation, reproduce, in addition to cope with physical barriers to movement. Marine organisms are adapted to the ocean’s physical properties. Classification of Life Three domains Archaea Bacteria Eukarya

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Classification of Living Organisms Five kingdoms Monera Protoctista Fungi Plantae Animalia Five Kingdoms of Organisms Monera Simplest organisms, single-celled Cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, archaea Protoctista Single- in addition to multicelled with nucleus Algae, protozoa Fungi Mold, lichen Five Kingdoms of Organisms Plantae Multicelled photosynthetic plants Surf grass, eelgrass, mangrove, marsh grasses Animalia Multicelled animals Range from simple sponges to complex vertebrates

Taxonomic Classification Carolus Linnaeus – 1758 Developed basis of modern classification of organisms Taxonomy – systematic classification of organisms Physical characteristics Genetic in as long as mation Taxonomy Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Fundamental unit Population of genetically similar, interbreeding individuals Classification of Marine Organisms Plankton (floaters) Nekton (swimmers) Benthos (bottom dwellers)

Types of Plankton Most biomass on Earth consists of plankton. Phytoplankton Autotrophic Zooplankton Heterotrophic Other Types of Plankton Bacterioplankton Virioplankton Holoplankton Entire lives as plankton Meroplankton Part of lives as plankton Juvenile or larval stages Macroplankton Large floaters such as jellyfish or Sargassum Picoplankton Very small floaters such as bacterioplankton Life Cycle of a Squid

Nekton Independent swimmers Most adult fish in addition to squid Marine mammals Marine reptiles Nekton Benthos Epifauna live on the surface of the sea floor. Infauna live buried in sediments. Nektobenthos swim or crawl through water above the seafloor. Benthos are most abundant in shallower water. Many live in perpetual darkness, coldness, in addition to stillness.

Benthos Hydrothermal Vent Communities Abundant in addition to large deep-ocean benthos Discovered in 1977 Associated with hot vents Bacteria-like archaeon produce food using heat in addition to chemicals. Number of Marine Species More l in addition to species than marine species Ocean has relatively uni as long as m conditions Less adaptation required, less speciation Marine species overwhelmingly benthic (98%) rather than pelagic (2%)

Adaptations of Marine Organisms The marine environment is more stable than l in addition to . Organisms in the ocean are less able to withst in addition to environmental changes. Marine animals do not risk desiccation. Adaptations of Marine Organisms Physical support Buoyancy How to resist sinking Different support structures in cold (fewer) rather than warm (more appendages) seawater Smaller size Adaptations of Marine Organisms High surface area to volume ratio Unusual appendages to increase surface area Oil in micro-organisms to increase buoyancy

Viscosity in addition to Streamlining Adaptations Streamlining important as long as larger organisms Less resistance to fluid flow Flattened body Tapering back end Temperature in addition to Marine Life Narrow range of temperature in oceans Smaller variations (daily, seasonally, annually) Deep ocean is nearly isothermal Ocean Temperature More stable than l in addition to as long as four reasons Higher heat capacity of water Ocean warming reduced by evaporation Solar radiation penetrates deeply into ocean layers Ocean mixing

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Cold vs. Warm Water Species Smaller in cooler seawater More appendages in warmer seawater Tropical organisms grow faster, live shorter, reproduce more often More species in warmer seawater More biomass in cooler seawater (upwelling) Temperature in addition to Marine Organisms Stenothermal Organisms withst in addition to small variation in temperature Typically live in open ocean Eurythermal Organisms withst in addition to large variation in temperature Typically live in coastal waters Salinity in addition to Marine Organisms Stenohaline Organisms withst in addition to only small variation in salinity Typically live in open ocean Euryhaline Organisms withst in addition to large variation in salinity Typically live in coastal waters, e.g., estuaries

Salinity Adaptations Extracting minerals from seawater High concentration to low concentration Diffusion Cell membrane permeable to nutrients, as long as example Waste passes from cell to ocean Osmosis Water molecules move from less concentrated to more concentrated solutions Osmotic pressure In more concentrated solutions Prevents passage of water molecules Isotonic Hypertonic Hypotonic Marine vs. Freshwater Fish

Organisms of the Deep End of CHAPTER 12 Marine Life in addition to the Marine Environment

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