Chapter Overview Earth’s Seasons Seasons Solar Energy on Earth Distribution of Solar Energy

Chapter Overview Earth’s Seasons Seasons Solar Energy on Earth Distribution of Solar Energy www.phwiki.com

Chapter Overview Earth’s Seasons Seasons Solar Energy on Earth Distribution of Solar Energy

Debro, Anita, Metro Reporter has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction Chapter Overview The atmosphere in addition to the ocean are one independent system. Earth has seasons because of the tilt on its axis. There are three major wind belts in each hemisphere. The coriolis effect influences atmosphere in addition to ocean behavior. Oceanic climate patterns are related to solar energy distribution. Earth’s Seasons Earth’s axis of rotation is tilted 23.5° with respect to ecliptic. Ecliptic – plane traced by Earth’s solar orbit Seasonal changes in addition to Earth’s rotation cause unequal solar heating of Earth’s surface.

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Seasons Tilt responsible as long as seasons Vernal (spring) equinox Summer solstice Autumnal equinox Winter solstice Solar Energy on Earth Declination – angular distance of Sun from equatorial plane Varies between 23.5° North in addition to 23.5° South latitudes Tropics Arctic Circle – 66.5° North latitude Antarctic Circle – 66.5° South latitude Distribution of Solar Energy Concentrated solar radiation at low latitudes High angle of incidence Solar radiation more diffuse at high latitudes Low angle of incidence

Distribution of Solar Energy Atmosphere absorbs radiation Thickness varies with latitude Albedo: 0–100% Reflectivity of a surface Average as long as Earth is 30% Angle of sun on sea surface Sun Elevation in addition to Solar Absorption Oceanic Heat Flow High latitudes–more heat lost than gained Ice has high albedo Low solar ray incidence Low latitudes–more heat gained than lost

Heat Gained in addition to Lost Physical Properties of the Atmosphere Composition Mostly nitrogen (N2) in addition to Oxygen (O2) Other gases significant as long as heat trapping properties Temperature Variation in the Atmosphere Troposphere – lowest layer of atmosphere Where all weather occurs Temperature decreases with altitude

Density Variations in the Atmosphere Convection cell – rising in addition to sinking air Warm air rises Less dense Cool air sinks More dense Moist air rises Less dense Dry air sinks More dense Atmospheric Pressure Thick column of air at sea level High surface pressure equal to 1 atmosphere (14.7 pounds per square inch) Thin column of air means lower surface pressure Cool, dense air sinks Higher surface pressure Warm, moist air rises Lower surface pressure Movement of the Atmosphere Air always flows from high to low pressure. Wind – moving air

Movements in the Air Example: a non-rotating Earth Air rises at equator (low pressure) Air sinks at poles (high pressure) Air flows from high to low pressure One convection cell or circulation cell The Coriolis Effect Deflects path of moving object from viewer’s perspective To right in Northern Hemisphere To left in Southern Hemisphere Due to Earth’s rotation The Coriolis Effect Zero at equator Greatest at poles Change in Earth’s rotating velocity with latitude 0 km/hour at poles More than 1600 km/hour (1000 miles/hour) at equator Greatest effect on objects that move long distances across latitudes

The Coriolis Effect Global Atmospheric Circulation Circulation Cells – one in each hemisphere Hadley Cell: 0–30 degrees latitude Ferrel Cell: 30–60 degrees latitude Polar Cell: 60–90 degrees latitude Global Atmospheric Circulation High pressure zones – descending air Subtropical highs – 30 degrees latitude Polar highs –90 degrees latitude Clear skies Low pressure zones – rising air Equatorial low – equator Subpolar lows – 60 degrees latitude Overcast skies with lots of precipitation

Three-Cell Model of Atmospheric Circulation Global Wind Belts Trade winds – From subtropical highs to equator Northeast trades in Northern Hemisphere Southeast trades in Southern Hemisphere Prevailing westerlies – from 30–60 degrees latitude Polar easterlies – 60–90 degrees latitude Global Wind Belts Boundaries between wind belts Doldrums or Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) – at equator Horse latitudes – 30 degrees Polar fronts – 60 degrees latitude

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Idealized Three-Cell Model More complex in reality due to Seasonal changes Distribution of continents in addition to ocean Differences in heat capacity between continents in addition to ocean Monsoon winds January Atmospheric Pressures in addition to Winds Weather vs. Climate Weather – conditions of atmosphere at particular time in addition to place Climate – long-term average of weather Ocean influences Earth’s weather in addition to climate patterns.

Winds Cyclonic flow Counterclockwise around a low in Northern Hemisphere Clockwise around a low in Southern Hemisphere Anticyclonic flow Clockwise around a low in Northern Hemisphere Counterclockwise around a low in Southern Hemisphere Differential solar heating is due to different heat capacities of l in addition to in addition to water. Sea breeze From ocean to l in addition to L in addition to breeze From l in addition to to ocean Sea in addition to L in addition to Breezes Storms in addition to Air Masses Storms – disturbances with strong winds in addition to precipitation Air masses – large volumes of air with distinct properties

Global Ocean Wind Energy End of CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction

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