Chapter Ten Topics Part 3: Water Availability in addition to Use Part 4: Freshwater Shortages Part 5: Water Management in addition to Conservation Part 6: Water Pollution
Norman, Royal, Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 10 Water: Resources in addition to Pollution Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required as long as reproduction or display. Water Resources Major Water Components Water Availability in addition to Use Freshwater Shortages Water Management in addition to Conservation Water Pollution Water Quality Today Pollution Control Water Legislation Chapter Ten Topics Mean Annual Precipitation
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Part 2: Major Water Compartments Groundwater, after ice, is the 2nd largest reservoir of fresh water Infiltration – Process of water percolating through the soil in addition to into fractures in addition to permeable rocks. Zone of Aeration – Upper soil layers that hold both air in addition to water. Zone of Saturation – Lower soil layers where all spaces are filled with water. Water Table is at the top of the Zone of Saturation Interactions of water with soil. Aquifers Recharge zones – areas where surface waters filter into an aquifer
Rivers, Lakes in addition to Streams – Precipitation that does not evaporate or infiltrate into the ground runs off the surface, back toward the sea. Best measure of water volume carried by a river is discharge. The amount of water that passes a fixed point in a given amount of time (usually expressed as cubic feet per second). Wetl in addition to s – Play a vital role in hydrologic cycle. Lush plant growth stabilizes soil in addition to retards surface runoff, allowing more aquifer infiltration. Disturbance (including urban development) reduces natural water-absorbing capacity, resulting in floods in addition to erosion in wet periods, in addition to less water flow the rest of the year. The Atmosphere – Among the smallest water reservoirs. Contains 0.001% of total water supply. Has the most rapid turnover rate. Provides a mechanism as long as distributing fresh water over l in addition to masses in addition to replenishing terrestrial reservoirs. Rivers, Lakes, in addition to Wetl in addition to s Rivers contain a minute amount of water at any one time. Lakes contain 100 times more water than all rivers. Wetl in addition to s play a vital role in the hydrological cycle. Part 3: Water Availability in addition to Use Clean, fresh water is requisite as long as human survival. Renewable water supplies consist of surface runoff in addition to infiltration into accessible freshwater aquifers (shallow ground water). These supplies are most plentiful in the Tropics. Picture to the left shows a ditch being used to divert water as long as irrigation of crops. Water rights as long as such activities have long been a source of tension in addition to conflict.
Part 4: Freshwater Shortages About 25% of the world’s people lack adequate, clean drinking water in addition to about 50% lack adequate sanitation. Water stress is a phrase used to describe countries where water consumption exceeds by >20% the available, renewable water supply Widespread water shortages are predicted by 2025. Depleting Groundwater Groundwater provides nearly 40% of the fresh water as long as agricultural in addition to domestic use in the United States. In many areas in the U.S., groundwater is being withdrawn from aquifers faster than natural recharge can replace it. Withdrawing large amounts of groundwater in a small area causes porous as long as mations to collapse, resulting in subsidence. Sinkholes as long as m when an underground channel or cavern collapses. Saltwater intrusion can occur along coastlines where overuse of freshwater reservoirs draws the water table low enough to allow saltwater to intrude. Ogallala Aquifer (large aquifer in the Central Plains) – water usage here is the similar to mining as long as a nonrenewable resource in addition to the water resource is being depleted rapidly. San Joaquin Valley, Cali as long as nia – ground surface sinking is occurring due to excessive groundwater pumping.
Ways to Increase Water Supplies Building Dams, Canals in addition to Reservoirs Seeding Clouds Condensation Nuclei Towing Icebergs Cost Desalination Most common methods are distillation in addition to reverse osmosis. Three to four times more expensive than most other sources. Dams are controversial in terms of environmental costs, justice, price mechanisms in addition to water policy, sedimentation, evaporative losses, etc. Part 5: Water Management in addition to Conservation Watershed management Sound farming in addition to as long as estry practices Wetl in addition to s conservation Domestic conservation Water reclamation in addition to recycling Water rights
Domestic Conservation Estimates suggest many societies could save as much as half of current domestic water usage without great sacrifice or serious change in lifestyle. Largest domestic use is toilet flushing. Small volume of waste in large volume of water. Significant amounts of water can be reclaimed in addition to recycled (purified sewage effluent) Part 6: Water Pollution Point source pollution – source is from drain pipes, ditches, sewer outfalls, factories in addition to power plants – easy to monitor in addition to regulate Nonpoint source pollution – runoff from farm fields in addition to feedlots, lawns in addition to gardens, golf courses, construction sites, atmospheric deposits – no specific location so harder to monitor in addition to regulate Types in addition to Results of Water Pollution Infectious agents – 25 million deaths a year Organic materials – biological oxygen dem in addition to (BOD) increase resulting in oxygen sag Plant nutrients – eutrophication, toxic tides Metals – mercury in addition to lead poisoning Nonmetallic salts – poison seeps in addition to springs Acids in addition to bases – ecosystem destabilization Organic chemicals – birth defects, cancer Sediments – clogged estuaries, death of coral reefs Thermal pollution – thermal plume
Infectious Agents Main source of waterborne pathogens is untreated in addition to improperly treated human waste. Animal wastes from feedlots in addition to fields is also an important source of pathogens. In developed countries, sewage treatment plants in addition to pollution-control devices have greatly reduced pathogens. Tests as long as water quality are done as long as coli as long as m bacteria (intestinal bacteria). Such tests are easier in addition to cheaper. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the major coli as long as m bacterium species Basics as long as Underst in addition to ing Environmental Implications of Oxygen-Dem in addition to ing Wastes Water with a Dissolved Oxygen Content (DOC) content > 6 parts per million (ppm) will support desirable aquatic life, whereas water with < 2 ppm oxygen will support mainly detritivores in addition to decomposers. Oxygen is added to water by diffusion from wind in addition to waves, in addition to by photosynthesis from green plants, algae, in addition to cyanobacteria. Oxygen is removed from water by respiration in addition to oxygen-consuming processes. Biochemical Oxygen Dem in addition to (BOD) is the amount of dissolved oxygen consumed by aquatic microorganisms in respiration. When organic wastes are added to rivers, microorganisms dem in addition to oxygen as long as respiration used in consuming the increase in food resource. As a result, DOC levels decline downstream (oxygen sag) from a pollution source as decomposers metabolize organic waste materials. Oxygen sag Plant Nutrients in addition to Cultural Eutrophication Oligotrophic - Bodies of water that have clear water in addition to low biological productivity. Eutrophic - Bodies of water that are rich in organisms in addition to organic material. Eutrophication - Process of increasing nutrient levels in addition to biological productivity. Cultural Eutrophication - Increase in biological productivity in addition to ecosystem succession caused by human activities. Inorganic Pollutants Metals Many metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium, in addition to nickel are highly toxic. Highly persistent in addition to tend to bioaccumulate in food chains. Lead pipes are a serious source of drinking water pollution. Mine drainage in addition to leaching are serious sources of environmental contamination. Nonmetallic Salts Many salts that are non-toxic at low concentrations can be mobilized by irrigation in addition to concentrated by evaporation, reaching levels toxic to plants in addition to animals. Leaching of road salts has had detrimental effect on many ecosystems. Acids in addition to Bases Often released as by-products of industrial processes. Organic Chemicals Thous in addition to s of natural in addition to synthetic organic chemicals are used to make pesticides, plastics, pharmaceuticals, pigments, etc. Two most important sources of toxic organic chemicals in water are: Improper disposal of industrial in addition to household wastes. Runoff of pesticides from high-use areas. Fields, roadsides, golf courses
Sediment Human activities have accelerated erosion rates in many areas. Cropl in addition to erosion contributes about 25 billion metric tons of suspended solids to world surfaces each year. Sediment can either be beneficial (nourish floodplains) or harmful (smother aquatic life). Thermal Pollution Raising or lowering water temperatures from normal levels can adversely affect water quality in addition to aquatic life. Oxygen solubility in water decreases as temperatures increase. Species requiring high oxygen levels are adversely affected by warming water. Industrial cooling often uses heat-exchangers to extract excess heat, in addition to discharge heated water back into original source. Thermal Plume Produce artificial environments which attract many as long as ms of wildlife. Part 7: Water Quality Today
Groundwater in addition to Drinking water Pollution About half the US population, in addition to 95% of rural residents, depend on underground aquifers as long as drinking water. For decades, groundwater was assumed impervious to pollution. It was considered the gold st in addition to ard as long as water quality. An estimated 1.5 million Americans fall ill from fecal contamination annually. Cryptosporidium outbreaks Groundwater Pollution Progress in addition to Problems in Other Countries Sewage treatment in wealthier countries of Europe generally equal or surpass the US. In Russia, only about half of the tap water supply is safe to drink. In urban areas of South America, Africa, in addition to Asia, 95% of all sewage is discharged untreated into rivers. Two-thirds of India’s surface waters are contaminated sufficiently to be considered dangerous to human health.
Sewage Treatment Water Remediation Containment methods confine liquid wastes in place, or cap surface with impermeable layer to divert water away from the site. Extraction techniques are used to pump out polluted water as long as treatment. Oxidation, reduction, neutralization, or precipitation. Living organisms can also be used effectively to break down polluted waters. Clean Water Act (1972) Goal was to return all U.S. surface waters to “fishable in addition to swimmable” conditions. For Point Sources, Discharge Permits in addition to Best Practicable Control Technology are required. Set zero discharge as long as 126 priority toxic pollutants. Areas of Contention Draining or Filling of Wetl in addition to s Many consider this taking of private l in addition to . Un-funded M in addition to ates State or local governments must spend monies not repaid by Congress. Part 9: WATER LEGISLATION
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