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Character Encoding in addition to Normalization ISI Arabic System in consideration of 2003 TIDES Evaluation Issues in Arabic MT
Bowie State University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Issues in Arabic MT Alex Fraser USC/ISI ISI Arabic System in consideration of 2003 TIDES Evaluation Alignment Template Approach (Och in addition to Others at RWTH Aachen) Maximum BLEU training (Och, ACL 2003) Customization of Training in consideration of Arabic System Model in addition to Search are not Arabic dependent (currently) Top Scoring System Character Encoding in addition to Normalization Arabic UTF-8 reduced so that CP-1256 character set (8-bit MS-Windows encoding) Handle non-Arabic characters that look similar Numbers Normalization is important Strip Kashida, vowels, Shadda Normalize Alef variants, Alef Maqsura/Yeh, Heh/The Marbuta, Hamza variants
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Morphology Simple morphological segmentation did not improve performance at large training sizes MT Extensions so that UMass Light Stemming in consideration of IR (Larkey et al., SIGIR 2002) Modified Buckwalter Stemmer (LDC), conservative stems (Xu, Fraser, Weischedel, SIGIR 2002) Space-separated Arabic strings are already translated as consecutive-word phrases alongside baseline system Used Buckwalter Stemmer in addition to Gloss in consideration of unknown words Training on long sentences Realignment of sentences of length > 45 tokens on chunk level Virtually all data can be used in consideration of training (93M words English, 82M words Arabic). English chunks are projected so that Arabic IBM Model 1 Viterbi word alignment is used so that project high precision chunk breaks from English so that Arabic Dynamic programming search in consideration of best chunk projection Error Analysis Verbal movement in addition to form VSO ordering Tense NP structure Missing ‘to be’ in present tense Also causes spurious ?to be? PRO These are all syntactic problems Also Important: Named Entities, Unknown Words
Future More parallel data ? 1 billion words More in-domain data More test sets Named Entity list Research on Syntax
MSE602 ENGINEERING INNOVATION MANAGEMENT ABOUT GROUPS DEFINING A GROUP DIMENSIONS OF GROUP PROCESS QUALITIES OF GROUP DIMENSIONS The Risky Shift Efficiency in addition to Speed Decision Situations THE RISKY SHIFT Groups tend so that gamble more than will their individual members EFFICIENCY AND SPEED -Abominably slow -Must establish a history -Short effective attention span DECISION SITUATIONS -Need a ?socio-political? decision -Need a ?better? decision PATTERNS OF TENSION #1 PATTERNS OF TENSION #2 SUCCESSFUL TENSION MANAGEMENT Confront Social problems Head-on Orientation Evaluation Control
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