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Chemical Properties What are Phthalates? Phthalates
Canisius College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Phthalates Edwin Chiang May 18, 2005 Bio 2B What are Phthalates? Phthalates are a class of widely used industrial compounds used as plasticizers especially in PVC (polyvinyl chloride) Various types of phthalates Range from one carbon so that seventeen carbons PVC plasticizers generally range from 4-13 carbons Examples: DINP (di-isononyl phthalate) DIDP (di-isodecyl phthalate) DBP (di-butyl phthalate)-common ingredient in nail polish DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate)-used so that make PVC Chemical Properties Insoluble in water Soluble in most organic solvents Colorless liquid alongside almost no odor DINP: Superior anti-heat, anti-cold, in addition to anti-volatile properties DIDP: Low volatile properties, anti-heat in addition to anti-aging properties, in addition to electricity insulation properties
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Uses of Phthalates Accounts in consideration of 80?90 percent of the world plasticizer consumption Used primarily as plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products Child?s toys Kitchen floor Building materials Medical devices: Plastic in IV, blood bags, etc. Fixatives in consideration of perfume, slowing down evaporation in addition to making the scent linger longer Other Uses Keep nail polish from chipping Hair sprays Coatings on numerous pharmaceutical products New car smell: Partly the pungent odor of phthalates volatilizing from a hot plastic dashboard. In the evening’s cool they then condense out of the inside air of the car so that form an oily coating on the inside of the windshield. Make tool handles strong in addition to more resistant so that breaking Nail extenders Bath soaps Detergents Aftershave lotions Exposure Anything plastic Fatty items like cheese in addition to meat from food packages Medical tubing/bags New car smell Toys Cosmetics Leather Cables Products alongside vinyl Study on the Levels of Seven Urinary Phthalate Metabolites in a Human Reference Population conducted by Blount, BC, MJ Silva, SP Caudill, LL Needham, JL Pirkle, EJ Sampson, GW Lucier, RJ Jackson, JW Brock in 2000 Highest level of exposure was women of child-bearing age, High levels of DEP, DBP, BBP Likely sources of these exposures are through cosmetics, including hair sprays, nail polishes in addition to perfumes, which are common applications of DBP DEHP & DINP were not found in high concentrations
Exposures (DEHP) Air Diethyl phthalate has been measured in the indoor air of a telephone switching office in addition to in outdoor air in Newark, USA, at concentrations ranging from 1.60 so that 2.03 æg/m3 in addition to from 0.40 so that 0.52 æg/m3, respectively, during a 43-day sampling period (Shields & Weschler, 1987). Water Concentrations range from 0.01ÿæg/litre (in 6 of 10 US cities) so that 1.0 æg/litre (in Miami, Florida) found in drinking-water samples from water treatment US EPA (1989) summarized various studies (originally reported in 1980?1982) in which diethyl phthalate was detected in the groundwater of 33% of 39 public water wells in New York state; other phthalate esters were also detected. Again, it is difficult so that determine whether these phthalates originated from the waterworks systems or from sample contaminations. (continue?) Food Baked foods in the United Kingdom packaged in cardboard boxes alongside cellulose acetate windows (containing 16?17% w/w diethyl phthalate) had diethyl phthalate concentrations of 1.7?4.5 mg/kg. It was suggested that diethyl phthalate may volatilize from the plastic window so that the food without direct contact or be adsorbed in condensate on the window, which would then fall back onto the food (Castle et al., 1988). Diethyl phthalate was quantified from retort food at concentrations of 0?0.51 mg/kg (Giam & Wong, 1987). Based on the levels of diethyl phthalate found in food by Castle et al. (1988), Kamrin & Mayor (1991) estimated a total daily dietary exposure so that diethyl phthalate of 4 mg, assuming daily ingestion of 1 kg of cellulose acetate-wrapped food containing 4 mg diethyl phthalate/kg. This represents a worst-case scenario, as it assumes that most foods are packed in cardboard boxes alongside cellulose acetate windows containing diethyl phthalate. Cosmetics A 2001 survey of fragrance manufacturers in the USA provided maximum concentrations of 1?11% diethyl phthalate in perfume in addition to up so that 1.0% in deodorants in addition to other personal cleanliness products. The products may be applied so that skin, eyes, hair, in addition to nails, in addition to they may come in contact alongside mucous membranes in addition to the respiratory tract; contact may be frequent (several times a day) in addition to of prolonged duration (years). Diethyl phthalate is also approved in consideration of use as a component of food manufacturing equipment in addition to packaging at unlimited concentrations (Anonymous, 1985) in addition to in drug product containers (Kamrin & Mayor, 1991). Harmful Effects At high doses of phthalates do constitute risks in the sense of traditional toxicology, these low doses change the stakes dramatically Male reproductive development is acutely sensitive so that some phthalates DBP & DEHP produced dramatic changes in male sexual characteristics when exposure took place in utero, at levels far beneath those of previous toxicological concern Males Hypospadias (anomaly of the urethra ) Damage of Sertoli cells caused by a metabolite of DEHP, monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) Low sperm count Reductions in semen quality DNA damage so that sperm Females Premature breast development Premature birth
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(continued?) Carcinogenic Damaged the liver of rats in addition to mice at high doses Relevant so that humans: unknown Research Scientists have long known that relatively large doses of some phthalates can lead so that health problems, including cancer. Lower levels may also have negative effects. Lowest level that produced adverse effects in the rats was 100 mg a day/kg body weight Animal studies have shown that phthalates can disrupt the endocrine system, inhibiting male hormones in addition to causing male infertility in addition to birth defects A study published in the Environmental Health Perspectives found that a group of men alongside DNA-damaged sperm also had higher levels of diethyl phthalate (DEP) – regarded as one of the less toxic phthalates DINP causes liver damage in animals & constitutes 40% of plastic toys More Studies DINP can leach out at risky levels when kids suck on them Study by the Silent Spring Institute found “significant concentrations” of phthalates including DEHP in addition to DBP in air in addition to house dust of 120 Massachusetts houses
DEHP & Male Reproductive System In 1999 Gray, LE, C Wolf, C Lambright, P Mann, M Price, RL Cooper in addition to J Ostby studied effects of anti-androgenic pesticides in addition to toxic substances on male rats Purpose: See effects on sexual differentiation in male rats Results: diverse profiles of reproductive malformations in the male rat. DEHP proved so that be highly toxic so that the reproductive system of male offspring in transgenerational studies (in which the pregnant female was exposed in addition to effects measured in her offspring). DEHP induced high levels of testicular in addition to epididymal abnormalities Atrophy in addition to agenesis. (continue?) A striking effect of DEHP was noted in 8-day old pups Several males from different litters displayed hemorrhagic testes that were visible by gross examination of the inguinal region Conclusion: the testis is a direct target of DEHP during prenatal life One of the endpoints study. measured was the percentage of male pups born alongside hypospadias (left). Males in the control group never had hypospadias (continue?) The study also determined the percentage of male pups born alongside areola. Males in the control group never had areolas.
Pre-mature Birth Research: Took cord blood from babies at birth in a hospital in Brindisi, Italy Analyzed the blood in consideration of DEHP in addition to its metabolite MEHP Examined the relationships between several aspects of the infants’ health at birth in addition to exposure so that DEHP in addition to MEHP Pre-mature Birth Found: Of 84 babies born consecutively 11 were preterm 3 had low birth weight 4 considered small in consideration of gestational age DEHP and/or MEHP present in 88% of the cord serum samples Both were present in 77% of samples Babies alongside MEHP had a significantly lower gestational age than those without MEHP exposures, averaging 38-39 weeks Other Results from Research Lowest level that produced adverse effects in the rats was 100 mg/day kg of body weight About 500 times more than what a 2001 study by CDC found in the general human population Phthalates found in largest quantities were DBP in addition to DEP , which tend so that be used in cosmetics in addition to perfumes Maximum exposure level w/o adverse affects: 0.1 mg / kg body weight a day (DBP & DEP) Of 72 name-brand cosmetics – everything from shampoo so that perfume so that deodorant ? 52 had phthalates Word ?phthalate? not on label b/c Federal laws don?t require it
Should We Worry ? Issue since early 1980’s Very controversial Some sources claim that they pose no risk so that humans or environments Carcinogenic in addition to reproductive effects found in rodents are species specific in addition to of little relevance so that humans Environmental impact considered so that be low due so that their ready biodegradability in addition to low toxicity (continued?) European Union conducted a risk assessment on DINP, DIDP in addition to DBP in addition to found no risk Assessments on DEHP in addition to BBP by EU are still underway FDA says phthalate-containing beauty products are safe U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission concluded after 4 yr study of DINP: children sucked on toys an average of 1.9 minutes per day, in addition to would have so that suck in consideration of 39 minutes so that ingest risky levels Industry argues that years of phthalate use without visible harm prove product safety. But? Contrary so that EU assessment, toxicologist Paul Foster of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences DBP & DEHP is considered so that be the most toxic phthalate. Studies found that human health endpoints are consistent alongside phthalate damage found in animal experiments.
What?s Being Done? In 1998, U.S. toy manufacturers voluntarily agreed so that stop using phthalates in pacifiers in addition to rattlers The EU has banned DINP in toys in consideration of kids 3 in addition to under, while Japan has announced a plan so that get rid of DEHP in addition to DINP in toys in consideration of kids 6 in addition to under Still more research Credits dcchem.co.kr epa.gov/safewater/dwh/c-soc/phthalat.html nsc /library/chemical/di(2-eth.htm atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts9.html
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