Climate Change Science Plan What is Climate Change Key Sources of In as long as mation

Climate Change Science Plan What is Climate Change Key Sources of In as long as mation www.phwiki.com

Climate Change Science Plan What is Climate Change Key Sources of In as long as mation

Tyler, Veronica, Morning Drive-Time On-Air Personality has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Climate Change Science David Stevenson Institute of Atmospheric in addition to Environmental Science Room 314 Crew Building dstevens@staffmail.ed.ac.uk Short questions – please interrupt Long questions – save until end Plan 5 x ½ hour ‘lectures’: 0900-0930 Observations of climate change 0930-1000 Greenhouse effect in addition to human influence on climate 1000-1030 Natural climate variability 1030-1100 Break 1100-1130 Modelling the climate system 1130-1200 Future climate 1200-1215 Questions in addition to discussion What is Climate Change Climate is the average weather at a given point in addition to time of year, over a long period (typically 30 years). We expect the weather to change a lot from day to day, but we expect the climate to remain relatively constant. If the climate doesn’t remain constant, we call it climate change. The key question is what is a significant change – in addition to this depends upon the underlying level of climate variability Crucial to underst in addition to difference between climate change in addition to climate variability

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Global mean surface temperature Time/years 0 300 Temperature Time

Key Sources of In as long as mation The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (www.ipcc.ch) Authoritative reports supported by >95% of climate scientists Fourth assessment report (AR4) published 2007 Recommended Books JT Houghton (2009) Global Warming: The Complete Briefing, 4th Ed. Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-52874-7 (£24.99) WJ Burroughs (2001) Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-56771-8 (£24.99) 1. Observations of climate change

Global mean temperatures are rising faster with time Period Rate Years /decade Global surface temperature 1855-2010 How is this curve calculated CET Warming in Central Engl in addition to

Aberdeen Temperatures 1871-2002 Edinburgh Temperatures 1764-1960 Edinburgh Airport Temperatures 1951-1999

Possible Problems with station data Instrument/human errors Changes of instrument/observer or observing technique Changes in station surroundings, e.g. urbanisation – this is a common criticism from climate change sceptics Some solutions: compare adjacent stations, compare with stations known to be unchanged All data in the ‘global’ picture have been carefully checked as long as these possible artifacts, in addition to where necessary corrected or discarded Observed surface temperature trend Trends significant at the 5% level indicated with a ‘+’. Grey: insufficient data Other evidence of Climate Change Glacier retreat 1875 2004

Glaciers in addition to frozen ground are receding Area of seasonally frozen ground in NH has decreased by 7% from 1901 to 2002 Increased Glacier retreat since the early 1990s Snow cover in addition to Arctic sea ice are decreasing Spring snow cover shows 5% stepwise drop during 1980s Arctic sea ice area decreased by 2.7% per decade (Summer: -7.4%/decade)

Other evidence of Climate Change Ocean heat content has increased Temperatures in the Atlantic: Change in heat content over last 50 years [units: 1022 Joules] Rise in global ocean heat content 1955-2005 Some ups in addition to downs, but clear overall increase Levitus et al., 2005, GRL

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Sea-level from satellites: 4 cm rise in last 10 years

Evidence from Phenology (timings of natural events) www.phenology.org.uk Some aspects of climate have not been observed to change: Tornadoes Dust-storms Hail Lightning Antarctic sea ice Direct Observations of Recent Climate Change Records further back in time (paleo-data or proxy data) E.g. tree rings

Summary 1 (Observations) Global surface temperatures have risen by about 0.6°C since 1900 It is likely that this warming is larger than as long as any century since 200AD, in addition to that the 1990s were the warmest decade in the last millennium. The warming differs in different parts of the world, but over the last 25 years, almost everywhere has warmed, in addition to very few places have cooled. Other changes have occurred, e.g.: Sea level has risen by about 20 cm, Ocean heat content has increased, Almost all mountain glaciers have retreated Coincident with this global warming, levels of CO2 ( in addition to other ‘greenhouse’ gases) have dramatically increased, to levels higher than those experienced as long as maybe millions of years. Next: are temperatures in addition to atmospheric composition linked

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Tyler, Veronica is from United States and they belong to KAHM-FM and they are from  Prescott, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Tyler, Veronica deal with the subjects like Music

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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Fielding Institute and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.