Computer Science as an Essential 21st-Century Skill: Making the Case Papers in addition to Talks on Gender Equity Why Diversity Is Essential

Computer Science as an Essential 21st-Century Skill: Making the Case Papers in addition to Talks on Gender Equity Why Diversity Is Essential www.phwiki.com

Computer Science as an Essential 21st-Century Skill: Making the Case Papers in addition to Talks on Gender Equity Why Diversity Is Essential

Steele, Don, News Announcer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Eric Roberts Professor of Computer Science Stan as long as d University K-12 Computing Teachers Workshop Grace Hopper Celebration Atlanta, Georgia October 2, 2010 Computer Science as an Essential 21st-Century Skill: Making the Case Papers in addition to Talks on Gender Equity Why Diversity Is Essential Equality of access is an important ethical principle. Greater diversity among those who create computing technology ensures that those technologies are relevant to in addition to usable by a wider range of people. More specifically, the male-dominated tradition of computing leads to an overall culture of technological machismo, as evidenced by modern computer games. Despite the economic downturn, there continues to be a shortage of highly productive software developers. Becoming a good software developer requires a rare combination of skills, creativity, in addition to temperament, making it all the more critical to look as long as such talent in as wide a population as possible. —from my SIGCSE talk on “Exp in addition to ing the Audience” in 2003

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Talking Point 1 Dem in addition to as long as people with strong computer science skills has remained high throughout the history of the field, in addition to has held up even during times of recession. Computing in addition to Competitiveness In his 2005 book, The World Is Flat, New York Times editorial writer Tom Friedman argues that the new global economy places increasing weight on technological innovation to maintain national economic competitiveness. Technological innovation requires a highly trained work as long as ce with strong computational skills, which means that such skills are in high dem in addition to . The Challenge of the Global Marketplace

Updates from Last Week’s Revision Five years ago, the National Academies prepared Rising Above the Gathering Storm, a book that cautioned: “Without a renewed ef as long as t to bolster the foundations of our competitiveness, we can expect to lose our privileged position.” Since that time we find ourselves in a country where much has changed— in addition to a great deal has not changed. So where does America st in addition to relative to its position of five years ago when the Gathering Storm book was prepared The unanimous view of the authors is that our nation’s outlook has worsened. The present volume, Rising Above the Gathering Storm, Revisited, explores the tipping point America now faces. Addressing America’s competitiveness challenge will require many years if not decades; however, the requisite federal funding of much of that ef as long as t is about to terminate. Literary Visions of America’s Future As a result, this country has one of the worst economies in the world. When it gets down to it—talking trade balances here—once we’ve brain-drained all our technology into other countries, once things have evened out, they’re making cars in Bolivia in addition to microwave ovens in Tadzhikistan in addition to selling them here—once our edge in natural resources has been made irrelevant by giant Hong Kong ships in addition to dirigibles that can ship North Dakota all the way to New Zeal in addition to as long as a nickel—once the Invisible H in addition to has taken all those historical inequities in addition to smeared them out into a broad global layer of what a Pakistani brickmaker would consider to be prosperity—y’know what There’s only four things we do better than anyone else: Music Movies Microcode (software) Pizza delivery Talking Point 2 Producing more students who are highly skilled in science in addition to technology is widely recognized as essential to national economic competitiveness.

Computing Opportunities are High The computing industry offers some of the best employment opportunities as long as university graduates. Here are a few data points that can serve as evidence: The number of jobs in the domestic software industry are at an all-time high in addition to are projected to grow dramatically over the next decade. Salaries as long as newly minted B.S. graduates in Computer Science are high, often exceeding the $100,000 mark. In 2005, Money magazine rated software engineer as the number one job in America. Labor statistics show that the ratio of the number of available jobs per graduate is higher in computing than any other employment category. Degree Production vs. Job Openings 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 Engineering Physical Sciences Biological Sciences Computer Science Ph.D. Master’s Bachelor’s Projected job openings Adapted from a presentation by John Sargent, Senior Policy Analyst, Department of Commerce, at the CRA Computing Research Summit, February 23, 2004. Original sources listed as National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Statistics; degree data from Department of Education/National Center as long as Education Statistics: Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System Completions Survey; in addition to NSF/SRS; Survey of Earned Doctorates; in addition to Projected Annual Average Job Openings derived from Department of Commerce (Office of Technology Policy) analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics 2002-2012 projections. See http://www.cra.org/govaffairs/content.phpcid=22. Sources: Industry Reports a Labor Shortage Gates Cites Hiring Woes, Criticizes Visa Restrictions By David A. Vise Microsoft Corp. Chairman Bill Gates said yesterday the software giant is having enormous difficulty filling computer jobs in the United States as a result of tight visa restrictions on as long as eign workers in addition to a declining interest among U.-S. students in computer science. Speaking on a technology panel at the Library of Congress, Gates said a decline in the number of U.-S. students pursuing careers in science in addition to technology is hurting Microsoft in the short run, in addition to could have serious long-term consequences as long as the U.-S. economy if the problem is not addressed. “We are very concerned that the U.-S. will lose its competitive position. For Microsoft, it means we are having a tougher time hiring,” Gates said. “The jobs are there, in addition to they are good-paying jobs, but we don’t have the same pipeline.” — April 28, 2005 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/04/27/AR2005042702241.html

But Contrary Reports Keep Coming In Once a Dynamo, the Tech Sector Is Slow to Hire By CATHERINE RAMPELL For years the technology sector has been considered the most dynamic, promising in addition to globally envied industry in the United States. It escaped the recession relatively unscathed, in addition to profits this year have been soaring. But as the nation struggles to put people back to work, even high-tech companies have been slow to hire, a sign of just how difficult it will be to address persistently high joblessness . The chief hurdles to more robust technology hiring appear to be increasing automation in addition to the addition of highly skilled labor overseas. The result is a mismatch of skill levels here at home: not enough workers with the cutting-edge skills coveted by tech firms, in addition to too many people with abilities that can be duplicated offshore at lower cost. — September 6, 2010 http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/07/business/economy/07/jobs.html Myths about Offshoring Thus, at least in computing, globalization has functioned exactly as the theory of comparative advantage suggests. A Thought Experiment about Offshoring Suppose that you are Microsoft in addition to that you can hire a software developer from Stan as long as d whose loaded costs will be $200,000 per year. Over in Bangalore, however, you can hire a software developer as long as $75,000 per year. Both are equally talented in addition to will create $1,000,000 annually in value. What do you do Although the developer in Bangalore has a higher return, the optimal strategy is to hire them both. After all, why throw away $800,000 a year Any elementary economics textbook will explain that one hires as long as the marginal value of the new employee is greater than the marginal cost. The essential point is that companies seek to maximize return, in addition to not simply to minimize cost.

Talking Point 3 Dem in addition to as long as computer science graduates remains high in comparison with other scientific in addition to engineering fields, even in the presence of offshoring. The Problem Starts Early Source: Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA, 2005 Despite recent increases in university majors, computer science remains unpopular in high school. AP/CS Is Relatively Small

Worse Still, AP/CS Is Losing Ground The Computer Science exam is the only Advanced Placement exam that has shown declining student numbers in recent years. Computing Faces Huge Challenges in Schools People who have software development skills comm in addition to high salaries in addition to tend not to teach in schools. In many schools, computer science is classified as vocational rather than academic. Students who are heading toward top universities are advised to take non-CS courses to bolster their admissions chances. Because schools are evaluated on how well their students per as long as m in math in addition to science, many schools are shifting teachers away from computer science toward these disciplines. Administrators find tools like PowerPoint more sexy in addition to exciting. J Modern tools have made programming more difficult to teach. Computer science in addition to computer scientists have a serious image problem that makes the field unattractive to many students. Jan Cuny’s “Clean Slate” Project http://www.cra.org/Activities/summit/Cuny-A-Clean-Slate-Approach-to-High-School-CS.pdf

Talking Point 4 We will not be able to address the shortfall in computing expertise unless we improve the situation at the K-12 level. Fortunately, K-12 education is currently a very hot topic. Waiting as long as Superman http://www.youtube.com/watchv=ZKTfaro96dg Matt Lauer Interviews President Obama http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26184891/vp/39378291 39378291

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Talking Point 5 Solving this problem will require all of us to work together from the many constituencies we represent: teachers, academics, industry, government. No one can do it alone. Key Initiatives The National Science Foundation has launched an ambitious ef as long as t to mount a “clean slate” approach to teaching computing at the high-school level. For the past two years, ACM in addition to CSTA have worked to make sure that computer science is part of the many debates in addition to proposals happening at all levels of government. On October 6, CSTA in addition to ACM will make two announcements: Talking Point 6 Building a successful partnership that can fix problems in computer science education is undeniably challenging, but success is possible.

About Bermuda British overseas territory lying 600 miles east of North Carolina. L in addition to area just over 20 square miles (less than twice the size of the Stan as long as d campus). Total population of only 62,000 (roughly the size of Palo Alto) with two public high schools: Berkeley in addition to Cedarbridge. Local parliament has had a Labour majority since 1998. Considerable national wealth, primarily from companies that relocate to Bermuda as a tax haven. The CIA World Factbook as long as 2005 listed Bermuda as having the highest GDP per capita in the world. The Bermuda.edu Documentary Image of Computing (Cali as long as nia) In 1998, sixth-graders in selected Cali as long as nia schools were asked to draw their image of a computer professional. The drawings are as long as the most part aligned with traditional stereotypes:

Images of Computing (Bermuda) In Bermuda, we repeated this experiment after students had taken our courses in addition to got rather different results: The End

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