Computers Are Your Future Eleventh EditionChapter 2: Inside the System UnitCopyr

Computers Are Your Future Eleventh EditionChapter 2: Inside the System UnitCopyr www.phwiki.com

Computers Are Your Future Eleventh EditionChapter 2: Inside the System UnitCopyr

Pagan, Shawn, Land Use Editor/Staff Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Computers Are Your Future Eleventh EditionChapter 2: Inside the System UnitCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall12All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any as long as m or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice HallInside the System UnitCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall3

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Objectives Underst in addition to how computers represent data.Underst in addition to the measurements used to describe data transfer rates in addition to data storage capacity.List the components found inside the system unit in addition to explain their use.4Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice HallObjectives List the components found on the computer’s motherboard in addition to explain their role in the functioning of the computer’s systems.Discuss (in general terms) how a CPU processes data.Explain the factors that determine a microprocessor’s per as long as mance.Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall5Objectives List the various types of memory found in a computer system in addition to explain the purpose of each.Describe the various physical connectors on the exterior of the system unit in addition to explain their use.Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall6

How Computers Represent DataComputers work with binary numbers, which include only 0s in addition to 1s.The smallest piece of data a computer can work with is known as a bit.A bit is either “on” or “off,” a 0 or a 1.Eight bits, a byte, signify a single unit of storage.Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall7How Computers Represent DataThe common measurement of a modem’s data transfer rate is in bits per second, such as gigabits per second (Gbps).The common measurement of data storage is in bytes, such as gigabytes (GB).Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall8How Computers Represent DataCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall9Because even small numbers require many digits when converted to binary, computers convert binary numbers into hexadecimal (hex) numbers, which use the numbers 0 through 9, followed by letters A through F.

How Computers Represent DataCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall10Floating-point notation Has no fixed number of digits be as long as e or after a decimal pointEnables a computer to work speedily with very large or small numbersRequires special processing circuitryHow Computers Represent DataCharacters (letters, numbers, in addition to symbols) are converted into numbers the computer underst in addition to s.Character code per as long as ms this conversion.Three main types of character coding are:American St in addition to ard Code as long as In as long as mation Interchange (ASCII)Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC)UnicodeCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall11Introducing the System UnitThe system unit is the case that contains the major hardware components of a computer.System units come in different styles in addition to have varying footprints—the amount of space that the unit uses.Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall12

Introducing the System UnitSome units have embedded biometric authentication devices.System units vary in their as long as m factor, which specifies how the internal components are located within the system unit.Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall13Inside the System UnitCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall14MotherboardCPUPower supplyCooling fanInternal speakerDrive baysExpansion slotsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall15System unit main componentsInside the System Unit

Inside the System UnitCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall16Inside the System UnitCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall17The motherboard is the printed circuit board that contains the electrical circuitry as long as the computer.The majority of parts found on the motherboard are integrated circuits.An integrated circuit (or chip) includes millions of transistors in addition to carries electrical current.A transistor is a switch that is able to control the electrical signal flow to the circuit.Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall18What’s on the Motherboard

What’s on the MotherboardThe integrated circuit chip that processes electronic signals is called the central processing unit (CPU).The CPU is also known as a microprocessor or processor.Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall19What’s on the MotherboardEach operation per as long as med by the CPU is assigned a specific number, called an instruction.An instruction set is the list of CPU instructions as long as the operations that it per as long as ms.Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall20What’s on the MotherboardThe two main parts of the CPU are the control unit in addition to the arithmetic logic unit.The control unit retrieves instructions from memory in addition to interprets in addition to per as long as ms those instructions.The control unit manages the machine cycle or processing cycle, the four-part process per as long as med by the CPU.Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall21

What’s on the MotherboardThe control unit manages four operations:Fetch: Retrieves program instructionsDecode: Determines what the program is telling the computer to doExecute: Per as long as ms the requested actionStore: Stores the results to an internal registerCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall22What’s on the MotherboardCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall23Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall24The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) per as long as ms arithmetic in addition to logical operations. Arithmetic operations involve adding, subtracting, multiplying, in addition to dividing.Logical operations involve comparisons between two or more data items.Registers store data when it must be temporarily stored in the CPU.What’s on the Motherboard

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Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall25Factors that affect the per as long as mance of a CPU include:The number of existing transistorsData bus width in addition to word sizeClock speedOperations per microprocessor cycleUse of parallel processingType of chipWhat’s on the MotherboardCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall26A data bus is the group of parallel wires that connect the CPU’s internal components.Data bus width is measured in bits.The maximum number of bits the CPU can process at once is called the word size.Word size determines which operating systems in addition to software a CPU can run.What’s on the MotherboardWhat’s on the MotherboardCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall27The system clock is an electronic circuit that produces rapid pulses in addition to coordinates the computer’s internal activities.Clock speed is the measurement of the electrical pulses generated by the system clock in addition to is usually measured in gigahertz (GHz).In general, the higher the clock speed, the faster the computer.

What’s on the MotherboardCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall28The number of operations per tick of the system clock affects microprocessor per as long as mance.Superscalar architecture enables the CPU to per as long as m more than one instruction as long as each clock cycle.Pipelining enables the CPU to process more than one instruction at a time, which improves CPU per as long as mance.What’s on the MotherboardCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall29What’s on the MotherboardParallel processing is a method in which more than one processor per as long as ms at the same time, resulting in faster processing.Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall30

Factors that influence the per as long as mance of the CPU include the data bus width, clock speed, pipelining, in addition to parallel processing.Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall46Chapter SummaryMain memory, RAM, is volatile. It temporarily holds programs, data, in addition to instructions.ROM, which is nonvolatile, contains prerecorded computer start-up instructions.Cache memory is additional CPU memory that operates at very fast speeds.Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall47Chapter SummaryComputers use ports, such as a USB port, to send in addition to retrieve computer data.Legacy ports include serial ports, parallel ports, PS/2 ports, in addition to SCSI ports.Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall48Chapter Summary

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