Computers in a Changing Society By John Preston, Robert Ferrett, in addition to Sally Preston Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Underst in addition to ing Hardware in addition to Its Function

Computers in a Changing Society By John Preston, Robert Ferrett, in addition to Sally Preston Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Underst in addition to ing Hardware in addition to Its Function www.phwiki.com

Computers in a Changing Society By John Preston, Robert Ferrett, in addition to Sally Preston Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Underst in addition to ing Hardware in addition to Its Function

Honan, Mathew, Contributing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Computers in a Changing Society By John Preston, Robert Ferrett, in addition to Sally Preston © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Underst in addition to ing Hardware in addition to Its Function © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Learning Objectives Categories of Computers Identify characteristics of personal computers (desktop, laptop or notebook, in addition to Personal Digital Assistant) Identify computer categories by capacity in addition to function Identify super computer characteristics in addition to uses Develop underst in addition to ing of distributed processing in addition to distributed databases Working with Numbers, Text, Pictures, in addition to Sound Develop underst in addition to ing of numbering systems Develop familiarity with pictures in addition to associated characteristics Gain an underst in addition to ing of analog in addition to digital transmission methods © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Learning Objectives Hardware in addition to Basic Computer Functions Identify power control symbols with associated meanings Identify input in addition to output devices, characteristics, in addition to functionality Develop an underst in addition to ing of memory, storage, in addition to processing types in addition to characteristics Develop an underst in addition to ing of monitors in addition to projectors Examine types of printers, printer technology, in addition to ink delivery Examine casing indicator light functionality Examine speaker functions Connecting Parts of a Desktop Develop underst in addition to ing of ports in addition to plugs Identify characteristics of surge protectors Identify characteristics of uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Categories of Computers Personal Computers Characteristics Also known as microcomputers Similar to large computers Intended as long as use by one person Include input, processing, storage, in addition to output Types Desktop Laptop in addition to Notebook Personal Digital Assistant, Appliances, in addition to Mobile Communication © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Categories of Computers Personal Computers Desktop Personal Computer, large in size Intended as long as use by one person Laptop in addition to Notebook Referred to as laptop computers or notebooks Portable personal computer with battery LCD (liquid crystal display) screen Mouse, touch pad track ball, or pointing stick Tablet PC © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3

Categories of Computers Personal Computers Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), Appliances, in addition to Mobile Communication PDA H in addition to -held or pocket size Used as long as managing daily tasks (appointments, tasks, contact in as long as mation, in addition to e-mail) Palm Pilot popularized PDA Appliances Computers dedicated to a single task Task Examples: Internet connection, word processing, TV shows, playing games Mobile Communication Devices PDA in addition to cell phone technology manufacturers Examples: E-mail, Web browsing, instant messaging, contact management software © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Categories of Computers Computers as long as Organizations Characteristics Used as long as communication in addition to storage of mission critical in as long as mation Used as long as conducting Web-based business via Internet Similar to personal computers, but high-powered Intended as long as use by many people Include input, processing, storage, in addition to output Physical environmental issues Types Workstations Network Servers Midi, Midrange, in addition to Mainframe File Servers Supercomputers © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Categories of Computers Computers as long as Organizations Workstations Similar to home computer Connected to local area network (LAN) High-per as long as mance desktop computers Physical environmental factors (wiring in addition to temperature control) Wireless connections using radio signals Security challenges such as eavesdropping Network Servers Used as long as sharing in as long as mation in addition to resources via LAN Coordinates computer in addition to printer traffic in addition to LAN communication Provides Web page in addition to e-mail functions on Internet or company intranet Size of file cabinets stored in telecommunications closets Physical security in addition to associated value © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3

Categories of Computers Computers as long as Organizations Midi, Midrange, in addition to Mainframe File Servers Computer names describe capability level Storage of mission critical data within databases Vary in capability depending on size of organization in addition to files User communication with file servers often facilitated by: Dumb terminals Point of Sale (POS) terminal Midrange—Used in mid-sized companies with thous in addition to s of customers Mainframe—Used in large companies with millions of customers Physical Environment Dedicated space with climate control Wiring incorporating plenum flooring (elevated) Security measures Emergency backup in addition to disaster recovery plan © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Categories of Computers Computers as long as Organizations Supercomputers Ability to quickly evaluate complex interactions Example: Modeling using finite element analysis (airplane design) finite elements—small pieces of airplane design detail as long as mulas—determine reaction to air flow in addition to stress Enormous processing capability simulations Most expensive of all computers Locations National research laboratories Large research universities Government facilities Military research facilities © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Categories of Computers Distributed Processing in addition to Distributed Databases Provide alternatives to large, expensive, centralized computing Distributed Processing Process of breaking large computer problems into manageable tasks May be computers connected to the Internet Example: Search as long as Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Project Distributed Database Storage of large database on several smaller computers Internet may be used to manage distributed databases Sharing files using centralized storage location Server or Peer-to-Peer Example: digital audio or video recordings © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3

Working With Numbers, Text, in addition to Pictures Numbers in addition to Text Decimal Numbering System Ten digits (0–9) Binary Numbering System Two digits (0s in addition to 1s) Represent on in addition to off Used as long as mechanical devices Binary number called binary digit or bit Transistors Electronic switches Replaced electrical devices Use binary numbering system © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Working With Numbers, Text, in addition to Pictures Numbers in addition to Text Digital Computers Use binary digits to interact with users Coding schemes American St in addition to ard Code as long as In as long as mation Interchange (ASCII) St in addition to ard as long as computer communication Uses binary assignments as long as letters in alphabet (upper in addition to lower-case), 10 decimal digits, in addition to special function keys Early ASCII—7 binary numbers/128 characters Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) Exp in addition to ed ASCII—8 digit binary numbers/256 characters Still in use today—IBM S/390 Mainframe Unicode Newer code using 32 digit binary numbers Includes codes as long as characters in many languages © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Working With Numbers, Text, in addition to Pictures Numbers in addition to Text Digital Computers Bits in addition to Bytes Bit—Each digit in a binary number Bit is smallest unit of in as long as mation computer can work with Byte—8 digit binary number Data transmission rates often given in bits per second (bps) © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Additional Resource http://www.howstuffworks.com

Working With Numbers, Text, in addition to Pictures Pictures Forms of Output Paper Computer Screen Pixels Binary numbers to letters using patterns of dots On—Bright vs. Off—Dark Greater resolution with more pixels 1024 x 768 (higher resolution) vs. 800 x 600 (less resolution) Three elements to produce color red, green, blue © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Working With Numbers, Text, in addition to Pictures Sounds Sounds Waves Dynamic—volume in addition to pitch Signal Transmission Analog Used prior to digital computers Varied in fashion analogous to volume in addition to pitch Conversion process uses specialized equipment—A to D converter (analog to digital) Digital Faster than analog Smoothes out signals—static-free Conversion Process uses specialized equipment—D to A converter (digital to analog) Digital Computers Manipulate numbers in addition to communicate via mechanical devices, sound, in addition to images. Unable to interpret user senses (touch, smell, taste) © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Hardware in addition to Basic Computer Functions Hardware—Physical components of computer Software—Instructions that direct computer activity Power Control Buttons Symbols indicate what the button can do Symbol on left is 0 or 1—Turns power off or on Next Symbol—1 overlapping 0 St in addition to by or Sleep Mode—Partially powered state Input Devices Keyboard Most commonly used piece of input hardware Programmable function keys Laptop users © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3

Hardware in addition to Basic Computer Functions Input Devices Keyboard © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Hardware in addition to Basic Computer Functions Input Devices Keyboard Special Function Keys Function Keys (Fn) Numeric Key Pad Numlock Combination Keys Control (Ctrl) Alternate (Alt) Shift Ctrl-Alt-Delete Special Characters (plus + sign) Keyboard Recognition Apple Computer Users © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Hardware in addition to Basic Computer Functions Input Devices Mouse, Trackball, Touchpad, in addition to Joystick Pointer control in addition to variations Convert physical motion into motion of screen pointer Mouse Common input device Positioning X axis (left-to-right position) Y axis (up- in addition to -down position) Mouse pad Components in addition to motion conversion—A-D converter Optical mouse—Use reflected light beams Trackball Upside down mouse Use fingers to move, not arm © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3

Hardware in addition to Basic Computer Functions Input Devices Mouse, Trackball, Touchpad, in addition to Joystick Joystick Uses same technology as mouse or trackball Rotating ball is inside case with a rod attached as long as control Game controllers Pointing Stick Small knob in some laptop keyboards Responds to sideways pressure Touchpad Commonly found on laptops Small rectangle of glass below spacebar Interprets finger touch Sensitive to touch © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Hardware in addition to Basic Computer Functions Input Devices Scanners Convert input one row at a time Used as long as pictures or printed documents Friendly in addition to af as long as dable Flatbed scanners Physical components in addition to scanning process Pane of glass in addition to fluorescent lamp A-D Conversion with pixel assignment Dots Per Inch (dpi)—Used as long as rating scanners Image storage requirements Multi-Function Devices All-in-one machines Print, fax, copy, scan Optical Character Recognition (OCI) Programs Convert printed documents to text (ASCII or Unicode) Software bundles © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Hardware in addition to Basic Computer Functions Input Devices—Digital in addition to Video Cameras Digital Cameras Input Process Lens focuses an image on an array of light-sensitive detectors in addition to converts image into electrical signals A-D converter produces number representing detected image brightness Digital numbers recorded on flash memory removable storage Image transfer options Wires in addition to docking station Flash memory on compact, removable Flash cards Video Cameras Like digital cameras, but can take several pictures per second Frames per second—Number of pictures taken each second Video conferencing or situation monitoring Internet transmission in addition to web cams H in addition to -held digital video cameras © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3

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Hardware in addition to Basic Computer Functions Input Devices Microphones Sound conversion to analog signals A-D converter changes sound to binary numbers Voice recognition programs Types of microphones Recordings E-mail attachments Conference calls Correct placement © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Hardware in addition to Basic Computer Functions Processing Definition: Per as long as ming mathematical or logical operations on data Transistors Invented in 1950s Replaced vacuum tubes in addition to mechanical switches Integrated Circuits (IC) Replaced individual transistors in mid 1970s Also called chips Contain millions of transistors Per as long as m specific or many tasks © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Hardware in addition to Basic Computer Functions Processing Microprocessor Also known as Central Processing Unit (CPU) Purpose: Accept instruction, retrieve data, per as long as m data operations, output results Early CPUs—Worked with 8 digit binary numbers (8-bit processor) Modern CPUs—Work with 32 or 64 digit binary numbers Clock—Special purpose IC as long as activity coordination Megahertz (millions of pulses per second) in addition to gigahertz (billions of pulses per second) Clock Speed—Indicator of processor per as long as mance Applications require high-speed processors CPU communicates via data bus Pathways as long as transmission of binary digits 32-bit data bus has 32 separate pathways Part of motherboard Connects integrated circuits to each other in addition to slots as long as connection of other devices © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3

Hardware in addition to Basic Computer Functions Memory CPU processes data in as long as m of memory Optimum—Low cost, fast, reliable Non-existent optimum R in addition to om Access Memory (RAM) Uses special purpose integrated circuit Also called physical memory Mounted on small circuit boards that plug into sockets on motherboard RAM memory ICs require continuous power Virtual memory Backup as long as low RAM Slower than RAM RAM measured in megabytes One byte approximately one character Simultaneous applications © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Hardware in addition to Basic Computer Functions Storage Low-cost methods Slower than RAM Measurements Kilobytes (1 thous in addition to bytes) Megabytes (1 million bytes) Gigabytes (1 billion bytes) Hard Disk Portable Data Storage Disks in addition to Drives Zip Floppy CD-ROM, CD-R, in addition to CD-RW DVD USB Storage precautions © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Hardware in addition to Basic Computer Functions Storage Hard Drive Stores data using magnetism Hard disk Stack of thin, rigid metal disks Usually referred to as C: drive Disks—Devices that store in as long as mation using magnetic methods Discs—Devices that store in as long as mation using optical methods © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3

Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Chapter Summary © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Chapter Summary © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Computers in a Changing Society Chapter 3 Chapter Summary © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Honan, Mathew Contributing Editor

Honan, Mathew is from United States and they belong to Wired Magazine and they are from  San Francisco, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Honan, Mathew deal with the subjects like Computers; Information Technology Industry

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