Conglomerates Introduction Example of Matrix Definition

Conglomerates Introduction Example of Matrix Definition

Conglomerates Introduction Example of Matrix Definition

Vanes, Johnjay, Morning Show Host/Producer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Conglomerates /lagunaconglom.htm San Onofre Breccia, Laguna Beach Introduction Rocks mostly of > 2mm clasts (gravel) Also called rudites Common, not abundant Important as long as tectonics, provenance, depositional environments, economics Grains = mostly rk fragments May contain matrix-clay or s in addition to matrix is finer material which infills the spaces between grains Example of Matrix Matrix is not cement It is deposited with rest of sediment Miocene San Onofre Breccia, Aliso Beach County Park,

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Study mostly in field-h in addition to sample not truly representative of outcrop Need to see large scale variations in composition & textures Definition Varies Folk – 30% gravel; less = gravelly mud/s in addition to Gilbert – 50% gravel < 50% = conglomeratic ss/mudstone Also called pebbly ss/mudstone Gilbert uses this term at <25% Is pebbly correct term Confusion led to term “diamictite” Poorly sorted, large particles in mud matrix So, have conglomerates with/without matrix Diamictite Boulder of diamictite of the Precambrian Mineral Fork Formation. It is lithified glacial till. Along the Elephant Head Trail, Antelope Isl in addition to , Utah. Scale bar on notebook is 10 cm. Taken 2002. Conglomerates Defined Using Fabric Clast-supported (framework supported) Matrix supported-diamictite Breccias Angular, gravel-sized particles Origin of Breccias Sedimentary-mass flows-triggering mechanism Non-sedimentary-tectonic (faults, folds); volcanic When is rk a breccia-is any fragmented rk a breccia Miocene San Onofre Breccia, Aliso Beach County Park, Intra as long as mational Conglomerate/Breccia Intra as long as mational= redeposited fragments. of weakly consolidated beds Thin, short term events e.g. l in addition to slides Rounded to angular fragments. common in shales & l.s. Epiclastic (extra as long as mational) Conglomerates Generated outside basin thru breakdown of older rks Framework clasts Oligomictic (e.g. qtz, arenite-stable fragments.) Polymictic (many dif types of fragments) Polymictic conglomerate. w/-unstable clasts-shale, L.S., basalt -Petromict conglomerate Epiclastic Conglomerate Continues Recycling leads to oligmictic conglomerate, but depends on source of rock (qtzite, qtz arenite, chert etc.) Composition may reflect sorting shale breaks down, metaqtzite= coarser durable clasts volcanic –bigger clasts survive; finer clasts may not survive transport Matrix Supported, Polymictic Conglomerate, New Zeal in addition to http://flexiblelearning.auckl in addition to Oligomictic Breccia, New Zeal in addition to Matrix of Epiclastic Conglomerate Clay & s in addition to -size material May have qtz, calcite, hematite, clay cement Conglomerate Textures Matrix content & fabric support High energy transport process=gravels w/little s in addition to Glaciers=matrix supported=diamictites Typically, 2 size modes gravel in addition to mud to s in addition to 1998 Debris flow deposits in Chalone Creek, Pinnnacles National Monument, San Benito County, Cali as long as nia USGS Debris flow deposits partly cover a road in Stevens Creek Canyon (Santa Clara County). The debris flow occurred during a storm in late January 2003 Structures Massive—lacks internal stratification Crude to good planar horizontal or inclined stratification Tabular & trough x-beds , less common than S.S May have normal & inverse grading Fluvial Conglomerate, France Conglomerates in addition to s in addition to stones representing bars deposited in the channel of a braided river. Note the lenticular bed geometry in addition to crude stratification. The northward dip (to the left) is a result of folding during Pyrenean earth movements. Crudely stratified Conglomerate/breccia,Protestant Cathedral, Irel in addition to Note alignment of the clasts Classification Lack adequate system use in as long as mal names-qtzite cong (comp.); fluvial conglomerate (dep env.); pebble conglomerate. (clast size probably because cong. not easily class; don’t have 3 principle clast types Classify Clast Stability ultra stable clasts (>90) = qtzose cong/diamictite–multicycle meta/unstable clasts (> 90)= petromict conglomerate/diamictite; First cycle Classification Continued Classify Clast Lithology clast stability class-little info of comp meta-clast, ig-clast, sed clast, polymict conglomerate tells about provenance also used as long as diamictite Classification Continued Clast Size cobble-rich qtzose rudite;boulder-rich petromict diamictite

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Qtzose Conglomerate Metaqtzite, vein qtz, chert-sed, meta, ig rk least stable lithology destroyed by weathering, erosion, transportation vein quartz=erosion of ig/meta rk implies intense weathering or vigorous transport mostly fluvial /1/790534557-A6f9J Massanutten Formation ,Silurian, Virginia /massanutten-conglomerate.jpg Petromict Conglomerate have metastable clast, various source rks plutonic not as common-maybe due to weather. first cycle can be extensive imply rapid erosion, elevated highl in addition to s limited transport-fluvial to deep marine Depositional Environments textures & structures related to environmental conditions reconstruct ancient environments genetic class. desirable but difficult fluvial, glacial, marine gravel process-related sheetflood, streamflow, wave-worked-this is favored

Genetic Classification Paleocene-Eocene Submarine Fan Conglomerate & Turbidites, German Rancho Fm, Salt Point, San Francisco Conglomerate Textures Shape in addition to orientation Gravel rounded in short distances There as long as e, fluvial conglomerate. may have rounded gravel in angular s in addition to Pebble Imbrication

Conglomerate Textures Preferred orientation to elongate clasts Transverse to flow, imbricated Pebble Imbrication,Quaternary Aluvial Fan Deposit, Spain More Imbrication, Truckee River Nevada (c) 2006 Andrew Alden Form (sphericity) related to parent rock- fissile/schistose fabric=tabular, massive rocks more equant

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