Contents Introduction to Belfast Theoretical context in addition to questions (1) Theoretical context in addition to questions (2) Case study background: Crumlin Road Gaol in addition to Girdwood Park

Contents Introduction to Belfast Theoretical context in addition to questions (1) Theoretical context in addition to questions (2) Case study background: Crumlin Road Gaol in addition to Girdwood Park

Contents Introduction to Belfast Theoretical context in addition to questions (1) Theoretical context in addition to questions (2) Case study background: Crumlin Road Gaol in addition to Girdwood Park

Mundy, Laurie, News Director has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal AAG Annual Meeting 2015 Special session: Contested Neighborhoods Territoriality in addition to ‘shared space’ in neoliberal times: The regeneration of Crumlin Road Gaol in addition to Girdwood Park, Belfast, Northern Irel in addition to Dr Jenny Muir 21st April 2015 Contents Introduction to Belfast Theoretical context in addition to questions Case study background in addition to brief timeline Present day situation Dynamics of the consultation process (Girdwood only): Site entrances Naming the new road Community survey What changed between 2012 in addition to 2015 Conclusion as long as practice in addition to theory Introduction to Belfast Northern Irel in addition to ’s largest city Population 281,000, 16% of NI Young population, average age 37, 19% under 15 years old Unemployment 8.3%, NI average 5.8% City Council recently given new powers, devolved from regional Assembly set up after Good Friday Agreement in 1998 Some territorial divisions in the city remain despite the end of the Troubles: Protestant/ Catholic ethnic divide

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Theoretical context in addition to questions (1) ‘Roll back’ in addition to ‘roll out’ neoliberalism ‘Roll back’ neoliberalism: prevalence of market in addition to quasi-market structures; state activity focussed on support as long as capital accumulation ‘Roll out’ neoliberalism: new as long as ms of governance, institutions, in addition to state structures; regulation of conduct Processes of neoliberalisation are uneven, or ‘variegated’: ‘across all contexts in which they have been mobilized, neoliberalization processes have facilitated marketization in addition to commodification while simultaneously intensifying the uneven development of regulatory as long as ms across places, territories in addition to scales’ (Brenner et al, 2010: 184) emphasis added Theoretical context in addition to questions (2) Studying these ‘spaces, places in addition to scales’ involves: ‘ asking how the interplay of multi-scalar actants around a specific project in a specific locality will configure local engagements with neoliberal ideologies or governmentalities’ (Newman, 2014: 3296). Because: ‘ no matter how single-mindedly they are pursued, programs of neoliberalisation are doomed to coexist in fields of socioinstitutional difference, dwelling amongst their ideological others, more often than not antagonistically’ (Peck et al, 2013: 1093) Need to look at local structure in addition to agency through: past in addition to present context; state, civil society in addition to market dynamics including governance structures in addition to drivers; local spaces of resistance; key political themes e.g. austerity, conflict resolution, city marketing IS neoliberalism everywhere – especially in contested neighbourhoods Case study background: Crumlin Road Gaol in addition to Girdwood Park 27-acre site in inner North Belfast Historically significant: Gaol, Courthouse in addition to Barracks Five surrounding electoral wards in top 10% on NI’s multiple deprivation index Site is in the middle of contested space: small areas seen as Protestant or Catholic; intense territoriality based on long-st in addition to ing history of conflict Impact on public services, especially social housing But also a site seen as having the potential to bring communities together: . any potential development should be created in addition to maintained as neutral space’ (Dunlop et al, 2002: 83)

Site map Timeline 1996 – 2007 1996: Crumlin Road Gaol closed, transferred to a government dept. in 2003 1998: Courthouse closed, sold to private developer as long as £1 in 2003 2005: Girdwood Barracks closed, transferred to a different government dept. to the Gaol in 2006 2006-07: Advisory Panel (community in addition to state) in addition to Masterplan on Barracks site, now known as Girdwood Park Mixed use development proposed including housing, community hub, leisure centre, sports facilities, education, l in addition to as long as private sector investment Panel could not agree on ‘shared’ housing component as long as middle of site, or on new access road linking ‘Protestant’ in addition to ‘Catholic’ areas Housing on the Girdwood site: Advisory Panel interviews 2009 From O’Dowd in addition to Komarova (2011): ‘ It basically got down to the sectarian argument that Catholics would have got a home [but] it’s about a need that has been clearly identified So you can’t have a big regeneration project in addition to ignore objective need on the ground’ (p.2019) (nationalist) ‘That site should be given over to economic development in addition to job creation Residential development is not that important in addition to would have meant that the site could not be shared’ (p.2019) (unionist) ‘If there is a need, in addition to I am not denying that there is a need, but I want a wall built around it! (p.2021) (unionist)

Timeline 2009 – 2012 2009: Masterplan to be carried as long as ward in stages, consider locating part or all of the housing to specific parts of the site but government still hoping a shared scheme would be possible Gaol refurbishment supported by all in addition to going ahead 2011: Housing controversy continues – each side of an election, different Ministers announced housing plan in addition to then withdrew it 2011: Girdwood Community Hub announced, £11.7m funded by EU Peace III in addition to led by Belfast City Council, to include training in addition to education facilities – Community Forum set up 2012: ‘Girdwood Concept Plan’ caused political storm: Housing located on two sites at opposite ends of the site Reignited debate on housing need vs. territory The Girdwood Park site: current plan, based on concept plan Timeline 2012 – present 2012: Gaol management contracted out – tours in addition to conference facilities, whiskey distillery under construction Over 400,000 visitors since 2012 Successful tourist attraction but no wider revitalisation of the area 2013: Courthouse development plan but still privately owned so cannot proceed – no developer interest Sept. 2015: Community Hub due to open; housing being built at top end of site Community Forum continues to meet, considering community management of the Hub in addition to shared space plan. Group at top end of site feel excluded – new challenge Some groups involved in new cross community project: ‘North Talks Too’ in addition to exploring further social economy opportunities

Constructing the Hub, 2015 Dynamics of the consultation process (1): site entrances Dynamics of the consultation process (2): naming the new road ‘Girdwood’ – a local historian’s account: The name is almost universally associated with the military barracks which, during the ’Troubles’, became the largest in Northern Irel in addition to had many controversial associations, not least as a site where the ill treatment/ torture of detainees at the time of Internment took place. Girdwood has in fact a far less controversial history in addition to as late as 1920 it is shown on a map as a farm reached by a tree lined avenue. Subsequently it was an in as long as mal in addition to publicly accessible park, in addition to it was only in 1947 that an initial small TA base was established there. The name Girdwood most probably derives from William Girdwood (1828-1879) who from 1859 onwards developed the Oldpark Print Works, a major concern employing 450, in addition to he also became a significant l in addition to owner in the area.

Dynamics of the consultation process (3): community survey Carried out in 2015 by North Talks Too 200 as long as ms returned from most of areas surrounding the site 83% think the Hub should be shared by both communities 66% would feel safe using the Hub 84% agree that the Hub should be jointly managed by local communities Popular activities would be dance classes, exercise, arts in addition to crafts, weights, boxing 62% want a swimming pool 45% would be interested in training or employment support facilities What changed between 2011 in addition to 2015 Shared housing off the agenda City Council took over community consultation from a government department: Better reputation locally, including as long as promoting community relations No link to regional Assembly Ministers Will run the whole site from 2016 due to government restructuring Access to EU Peace III funding important driver: includes specific peace-building targets in addition to outcomes – project has become more overtly about peace-building rather than regeneration BUT Council’s new outsourced leisure management contract has caused some concern Conclusions as long as practice Working around the difficult issues involves compromise in addition to creative thinking Housing component not as originally intended Separate entrances in addition to gates to address continuing insecurity Reclaiming ‘Girdwood’ as long as the street name Needs a strong state in addition to community partnership Peacebuilding takes time in addition to money Communities can be divided amongst themselves in contested areas Community elites can work well across divisions in addition to develop common objectives, but taking others with you is a long process Politicians do not tend to be helpful – but the local state can be

Conclusions as long as theory Shows how neoliberalisation is contingent in addition to uneven Symbolism of reclaiming Gaol, Barracks l in addition to in addition to (eventually) Courthouse from coercive use Private sector playing a peripheral role: outsourcing of Gaol management in addition to leisure services; failed Courthouse hotel project; social economy positioned as an alternative as long as Hub management Role of local state crucial in mediating: Neoliberalised economic development agenda: Gaol now good example in addition to very successful A more Keynesian approach to social investment Peacebuilding agenda through emphasis on shared space – stronger than 2012. Is peacebuilding ‘roll out’ neoliberalism But state couldn’t progress without support from civil society References Blanco, I., Griggs, S. in addition to Sullivan, H. (2014) ‘Situating the local in the neoliberalisation in addition to trans as long as mation of urban governance’, Urban Studies 51(15): 3129-3146. Brenner, N., Peck, J. in addition to Theodore, N. (2010) ‘Variegated neoliberalization: geographies, modalities, pathways’, Global Networks 10(2): 182-222. Muir, J. (2014) ‘Neoliberalising a divided society The regeneration of Crumlin Road Gaol in addition to Girdwood Park, North Belfast’, Local Economy 29 (1-2): 52-64. Newman, J. (2014) ‘L in addition to scapes of Antagonism: Local Governance, Neoliberalism in addition to Austerity’, Urban Studies 51(15): 3290-3305. O’Dowd, L. in addition to Komarova, M. (2011) ‘Contesting Territorial Fixity A Case Study of Regeneration in Belfast’, Urban Studies 48(10): 2013-2028. Peck, J. in addition to Tickell, A. (2002) ‘Neoliberalizing Space’, Antipode 34(3): 380-404. Peck J., Theodore, N. in addition to Brenner, N. (2013) ‘Neoliberal urbanism redux’ International Journal of Urban in addition to Regional Research 37(3): 1091–1099.

Mundy, Laurie WRTR-FM News Director

Mundy, Laurie News Director

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