Controlled Experiments When does a hypothesis become a theory Theories EXPLAIN! Laws DESCRIBE! Section 1-3: Measurement

Controlled Experiments When does a hypothesis become a theory Theories EXPLAIN! Laws DESCRIBE! Section 1-3: Measurement www.phwiki.com

Controlled Experiments When does a hypothesis become a theory Theories EXPLAIN! Laws DESCRIBE! Section 1-3: Measurement

Duggan, Tara, Food Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Natural Science is divided into 3 main branches: Physical Science Earth in addition to Space Science Life Science In this class we will be focusing on Physical Science, which mainly focuses on the study of non-living things. 1-1 What is Physical Science So what is Physical Science Physical Science is the study of matter, energy, in addition to the changes they undergo. Matter is anything that has mass in addition to occupies space. Energy is the ability to do work or cause change. Turn to page 8 in your textbooks. What are the 2 main branches of Physical Science Branches of Physical Science PHYSICS Study of matter, energy, motion, as long as ces, in addition to how they interact Learn about different as long as ms of energy Apply the laws of physics that govern energy to Earth, the solar system, in addition to the universe beyond Ever wonder how a laser works A physicist knows! CHEMISTRY Study of the properties of matter in addition to how matter changes Learn about the particles that make up matter in addition to properties of different as long as ms of matter Hydrogen alone is combustible. Oxygen alone is combustible. When combined in the as long as m of water, H2O, they put out fire! Why

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Why Study Physical Science Because it is used everyday in the real world! Who can think of some examples of when Physical Science is used in real life Consider these examples: The water you shower with is heated by chemical fuel or electricity You use as long as ce to crush food when you eat The food you eat is converted into chemical energy that your body uses to per as long as m all of your daily tasks There are chemicals in toothpaste you use to brush your teeth BIG ideas of Physical Science as long as ce in addition to energy the laws of conservation atoms, molecules, in addition to the atomic theory The behavior of particles of matter in solids, liquids, in addition to gases Skills Scientists Use: Observing- Using one or more senses to gather in as long as mation. 2 Types of observations: 1) Qualitative Observations- Do not involve numbers or measurements, “That man is tall.” 2) Quantitative Observations- Involve measurements, “That man is 6’5” tall.” Inferring (or making an inference)- Based on your observations or what you already know; not always correct. Predicting- making as long as ecast of what will happen in the future based on past experience or evidence

Observation Versus Inference! Now you try! In your notes, classify the following as observations or inferences: How did you do INFERENCE OBSERVATION OBSERVATION INFERENCE

What is Scientific Inquiry Scientific Inquiry refers to the different ways scientist study the natural world. It is the ongoing process of discovery in Science. In the process of scientific discovery, scientists use curiosity, honesty, open-mindedness, skepticism, in addition to creativity. Why are these good qualities as long as a scientist to have 1-2 Scientific Inquiry How do scientists investigate the natural world What role do models, theories, in addition to laws play in science Process of Inquiry Includes: Posing questions Developing hypotheses Designing experiments Collecting in addition to interpreting data Drawing conclusions Communicating ideas in addition to results The Nature of Inquiry There is no set path that a scientific inquiry must follow. Different scientists may choose different paths when studying the same event. Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science The scientific method is a more linear, organized way to inquire about science. It always starts with an observation. Copy the flow chart to the left, but add a bubble to the top that says “Make Observations.” The Scientific Method

Step 1: Observations Observations lead to a question or problem Example: You enter a dark room in addition to you observe that the lights are not turning on. This should lead you to the Question (Step 2) “Why are the lights not working” Step 3: Background Research Research will help you as long as m a hypothesis that makes sense. You could use the internet, books, or even talk to knowledgeable people to see what could be possibly causing the lights to not turn on. Example: Possible explanations you come up with could be that the light bulb burnt out, or the electrical outlet is not working, or the breaker needs flipped, etc Who can think of some other possible explanations Step 4: Hypothesis Form a hypothesis (possible explanation as long as observations) -Use the research you just did! -Underst in addition to that your hypothesis is only ONE possible explanation, in addition to may not be correct! Example: You hypothesize that the light bulb has burnt out.

Step 5: Test the Hypothesis with an Experiment Collect data through observation or measurement Qualitative: characteristics (ex: red hair) Quantitative: numbers (ex: plant height= 32cm) Example: Check other known-working light bulbs in the lamp to see if the light will turn on. Controlled Experiments only 1 thing ( called a variable) changes Variable that is deliberately changed= manipulated variable (independent variable) What is the independent variable in this experiment (Hint: What are we changing) Variable that is observed in addition to changes in response= responding variable (dependent variable) -What is the dependent variable in this experiment (Hint: What is changing because of our independent variable) THE LIGHT BULB! WHETHER OR NOT THE LIGHT TURNS ON! Controlled Experiments All other variables in the experiment are held constant, which means they never change= controlled variable (constant variable) -What are some of the controlled variables in this experiment Why would a scientist want to use a controlled experiment THE LAMP, THE ROOM, THE ELECTICAL OUTLET

Step 6 (Part I): Record & Analyze Data Organize your data into charts in addition to graphs so that it is easier to recognize patterns Example: Step 5: Draw Conclusions Decide if the evidence supports or rejects your hypothesis. Example: All light bulbs in that lamp plugged into the same outlet are not functioning, there as long as e I will reject my initial hypothesis because it is unlikely that all light bulbs are burnt out. Rejecting your original hypothesis is valid in as long as mation because it helps you rule out possible causes to the problem or question in addition to allows you to make a new hypothesis in addition to start the steps of the scientific method over again. Since our Hypothesis was not correct, we will go back to step 4 in addition to as long as m another hypothesis that we can test . ANY IDEAS After we as long as m our new hypothesis, we will go back through the steps of the scientific method! Once we find a hypothesis that is correct, we have answered our question! In larger experiments, scientists will write up lab reports, repeat their experiments, publish their results, or even branch out from the experiment to test other ideas.

Why would scientists want to write lab reports in addition to /or publish their results So other scientists can learn from their data, in addition to to possibly receive credit as long as their work. Why would scientists want to repeat their experiments To make sure their results are accurate. When does a hypothesis become a theory When a hypothesis is tested in addition to confirmed enough times that it is unlikely to be proven wrong by future tests In science, the word theory applies to a well-tested explanation that brings together a lot of observations A theory may be changed or replaced as new evidence is discovered What is a Law A law is a statement that describes what scientist expect to happen every time under a particular set of conditions. It describes an observed pattern without attempting to explain it. Laws have been verified over in addition to over again. Example: The Law of Gravity- states that all objects in the universe attract each other. Theories Versus Laws: Theories EXPLAIN! Laws DESCRIBE!

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Section 1-3: Measurement Why do scientists use a st in addition to ard measurement system What are the SI units of measurement as long as length, mass, volume, density, time, in addition to temperature Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science A St in addition to ard Measurement System Using SI as the st in addition to ard system of measurement allows scientists to compare data in addition to communicate with each other about their results. SI units are based on multiples of 10. We will be using SI in addition to other metric units. Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science The Metric System The SI system is considered to be the modern metric system. It is considered a universal language as long as scientists, doctors, the military, in addition to most countries. The US is one of the only countries not on the metric system. We use The English System which includes mph, feet, pounds, gallons, Farenheit, etc Why do you think the US has not switched to the Metric System

Length The basic unit of length in SI is the meter (m). To measure something larger than a meter, scientist may use kilometers (km), which means one thous in addition to . Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science To measure something smaller than a meter, scientists may use centimeters (cm), centi- means one-hundredth, or millimeters (mm), milli- means one-thous in addition to th. Consider a ruler This ruler shows both Metric in addition to English units as long as measuring length The numbers on the top are centimeters The tiny lines within each centimeter are millimeters. Notice there are 10 mm in 1 cm. COUNT THEM! How many mm are in 3 cm The numbers on the bottom are inches Notice how much bigger 1 in is compared to 1 cm There are 2.54 cm in 1 in We will practice converting from Metric to Metric in addition to from Metric to English later! WEIGHT vs MASS Weight: Your weight is a measure of the as long as ce of gravity on you. The as long as ce of gravity may be more or less on other planets or moons than on Earth. You would weigh about one-sixth of your Earth weight on the moon. The newton (N) is the SI unit, the pound (lb) is the English unit. Mass: Mass is the measure of the amount of matter an object contains. Mass is not affected by gravity. If you travel to the moon, the amount of matter in your body (your mass) will not change. Scientists prefer to use mass rather than weight. SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg), but we will be using mostly grams (g) in this class. WHY

Here are some more nonlinear graphs: No trend Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science Even nonlinear graphs with no recognizable pattern provides useful in as long as mation to scientists . It most likely means that there is no relationship between the two variables.

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