Controlled release of volatile fine chemicals used in crop protection
Hoffman, Richard, Contributing Editor (Network Computing) has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Bangor 30th August, 2012 Controlled release of volatile fine chemicals used in crop protection Owen Jones AgriSense / Suterra Pheromones & Other Semiochemicals The principal component of the sex pheromone of the Citrus Moth in addition to the Olive Moth Z -7- tetradecenal (Z-7-14:ald) Nesbitt, B.F., Beevor, P.S, Hall, D.R., Lester, R., Sternlicht, M., in addition to Goldenberg, S. (1977). Identification in addition to synthesis of the female sex pheromone of the citrus flower moth, Prays citri. Insect Biochem. 7:355-359.
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Pheromone Dispenser Each Vial contains 1 mg of the pheromone Delta Trap in Olive Tree Control of Release Rate by Easily Available Means Vials Matrix System (Septa) Sachets in addition to Plastic Pouches The Lure Technology Early Days
Types of Delivery Systems Employed Laminates Matrix systems Reservoirs Extrusions Attractant incorporated into structure of device Attractant mostly stored in enclosed lumen Laminate More Advanced Lure Technology Membrane systems Release Rate Profile days days Percent remaining Zero Order First Order Interpreting the In as long as mation Pheromone Monitoring
Pheromone Lures as long as over 1000s of species Semiochemicals now come from many sources 1-octen-3-ol An important flavour chemical in mushroom soup is also an attractant as long as mosquitoes in addition to midges 4aS7S7aR-nepetalactone (cis,trans) Extracted from Nepeta cataria in addition to used in many aspects of aphid pest management para – menthane3,8diol Extracted from lemon Eucalyptus citriodora in addition to also synthesised – is a good repellent as long as biting insects Formulations of novel Semiochemicals Nepetalactone in controlled release polymer dispensers R-octenol in addition to ammonia dispenser as long as mosquitoes
Control of Moth Pests with Sex Pheromones Mating Disruption Pheromones are released to interfere with the ability of male insects to locate females of the same species, thereby disrupting mating in addition to controlling the damage to crops inflicted by the hatching larvae. The Principal of Mating Disruption Matrix Systems as long as Controlled Release Frustrate PBW Control of Pink Bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella in cotton 250 devices/ha applied once Lasts 3-4 months Selibate CS Control of Chilo suppressalis in rice 40-100 devices/ha applied once Lasts 3-4 months
Reservoir Systems as long as Controlled Release of Pheromones – Dispensers Dispensers (Single or Double) Twist-tie Ropes Ampoules (Single or Double) Reservoir Systems as long as Controlled Release of Pheromones Micro-Encapsulated Formulations . Polymer Skin Nucleus [active ingredient: component(s) of pheromone] Formulations as long as : Pome Fruit Codling Moth Cydia pomonella Stone Fruit Oriental Fruit Moth Grapholita molesta Peach Twig Borer Anarsia lineatella Vegetables Diamond Back Moth Plutella xylostella Beet Army Worm Spodoptera exigua Reservoir Systems as long as Controlled Release of Pheromones Micro-Encapsulated Formulations
Reservoir Systems as long as Controlled Release of Pheromones Timed Release Aerosol Delivery Deployment Strategies A large number of low-dose point sources CheckMate Microencapsulated as long as mulations 50 – 100 million caps / ha per application 350 ng pheromone / capsule Ecopom in addition to Ecodian 2,500 point sources / ha applied 2 to 3 x 20 g A.I. per ha per application Ecotape 4,000 point sources / ha 12 g A.I. Per ha. H in addition to -Applied Dispensers Isomate twist ties, RAK ampoules, in addition to CheckMate membrane dispensers 250 to 1000 dispensers per ha 80 200 g A. I. per ha / season Puffers 2 to 3 per ha 110 g A.I. per ha / season Deployment Strategies
Situation Today in addition to in the Future Market as long as pheromone-based control products is about $200 million world-wide currently but growing at over 10% per annum 780,000 ha treated in 2010 with pheromone-based products It has taken nearly 35 years to get to its current size. It is still under 3% of the world-wide Insecticide Market ($9 Billion) This is just the mating disruption market in the future there will be markets as long as repellents, arrestants, dipersal or alarm pheromones, attractants as long as beneficial insects in addition to many more All Requiring Controlled Release
Hoffman, Richard Contributing Editor (Network Computing)
Hoffman, Richard is from United States and they belong to School CIO and they are from San Bruno, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Hoffman, Richard deal with the subjects like Network Computing
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