Convergence! June 22, 1975 Frontiers of Physics Peter
Hicks, Jeffrey, Contributing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Quantum in as long as mation in the 21st centuryJohn Preskill, CaltechConvergence @ Perimeter Institute 22 June 2015Convergence!June 22, 1975Quantum In as long as mation Sciencequantum theory+ computer science+ in as long as mation theory= quantum in as long as mation science
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Three Questions About Quantum Computers1. Why build oneHow will we use it, in addition to what will we learn from it2. Can we build oneAre there obstacles that will prevent us from building quantum computers as a matter of principle3. How will we build one What kind of quantum hardware is potentially scalable to large systemsQuantum HardwareMarcusSchoelkopfBlattWinel in addition to YacobyMartinisTwo-level ions in a Paul trap, coupled to phonons.Superconducting circuits with Josephson junctions.Electron spin (or charge) in quantum dots.Cold neutral atoms in optical lattices.Two-level atoms in a high-finesse microcavity, strongly coupled to cavity modes of the electromagnetic field.Linear optics with efficient single-photon sources in addition to detectors. Nuclear spins in semiconductors, in addition to in liquid state NMR.Nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond.Anyons in topological matter , quantum wires, etc.http://www.aps.org/membership/units/statistics.cfm(Founded 2005. Membership is 57% students.)APS Topical Group on Quantum In as long as mation
Frontiers of Physicsshort distancelong distancecomplexityHiggs bosonNeutrino massesSupersymmetryQuantum gravityString theoryLarge scale structureCosmic microwave backgroundDark matterDark energyMore is differentMany-body entanglementPhases of quantum matterQuantum computingEmergent geometryhep-th papers with entanglement in the titleYear(projected)Quantum entanglementNearly all the in as long as mation in a typical entangled quantum book is encoded in the correlations among the pages.You can’t access the in as long as mation if you read the book one page at a time.
To describe 300 qubits, we would need more numbers than the number of atoms in the visible universe!We cant even hope to describe the state of a few hundred qubits in terms of classical bits.Might a computer that operates on qubits rather than bits (a quantum computer) be able to per as long as m tasks that are beyond the capability of any conceivable classical computerPeter Shor
Finding Prime Factors1807082088687 4048059516561 64405905566278102516769401349170127021450056662540244048387341127590812303371781887966563182013214880557´=Finding Prime FactorsShorThe boundary betweenhard in addition to easy seems to be different in a quantum world than in a classical world. Ron Rivest Adi Shamir Len Adleman
Classically EasyQuantumly HardQuantumly EasyProblemsClassically EasyQuantumly HardQuantumly EasyProblemsWhats in hereDecoherence
DecoherenceDecoherence explains why quantum phenomena, though observable in the microscopic systems studied in the physics lab, are not manifest in the macroscopic physical systems that we encounter in our ordinary experience.DecoherenceERROR!How can we protect aquantum computer fromdecoherence in addition to other sources of errorDecoherenceERROR!To resist decoherence, we must prevent the environment from learning about the state of the quantum computer during the computation.
Quantum error correctionThe protected logical quantum in as long as mation is encoded in a highly entangled state of many physical qubits.The environment can’t access this in as long as mation if it interacts locally with the protected system.Some recently reported error ratesIon trap one-qubit gates:~ 2 × 10-5 [NIST]Ion trap two-qubit gates:~ 5 × 10-3 [Innsbruck]Superconducting circuits two-qubit gates~ 6 × 10-3 [UCSB]Quantum error correction becomes effective when gate error rates are low enough, in addition to the overhead cost of error correction improves as hardware becomes more reliable.BlattWinel in addition to MartinisBig QuestionsWhats inside a black hole Whats the quantum structure of spacetime
PARADOX!Planck1900Hawking1975The ultraviolet catastropheIn thermal equilibrium at nonzero temperature, the elelctromagnetic field carries an infinite energy per unit volume The end of classical physics!When the theories we use to describe Nature lead to unacceptable or self-contradictory conclusions, we are faced with a great challenges in addition to great opportunities .The in as long as mation loss puzzleThe radiation emitted by an evaporating black hole is featureless, revealing nothing about how the black hole as long as med The end of quantum physics(Or of relativistic causality)event horizonsingularitycollapsing bodyIn as long as mation Puzzle: Is a black hole a quantum clonertime sliceIf in as long as mation escapes from the black hole, then The same (quantum) in as long as mation is in two places at the same time!Were stuck: Either in as long as mation is destroyed or cloning occurs. Either way, quantum physics needs revision.time(outsidehorizon)event horizonsingularitytime(outsidehorizon)collapsing bodyBlack hole complementaritytime sliceThe inside in addition to the outside are not two separate systems.Rather, they are two different ways of looking at the same system. [Susskind 1993].
Black hole complementarity challengedThree reasonable beliefs, not all true! [Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski, Sully (AMPS) 2012]The black hole scrambles in as long as mation, but does not destroy it.An observer who falls through the black hole horizon sees nothing unusual (at least as long as a while).An observer who stays outside the black hole sees nothing unusual.Conservative resolution:A firewall at the horizon, rather than (2). Classical correlations are polygamousQuantum correlations are monogamous unentangledfully entangled
Now is the time as long as quantum in as long as mation scientists to jump into black holesBeni YoshidaQuantumFrontiers.comMarch 2015
Hicks, Jeffrey Contributing Editor
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