Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. ConcepTest Clicker Questions Chapter 16

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. ConcepTest Clicker Questions Chapter 16 www.phwiki.com

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. ConcepTest Clicker Questions Chapter 16

Sargeant, Frank, Field Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. ConcepTest Clicker Questions Chapter 16 Physics, 4th Edition James S. Walker Question 16.1 Degrees Which is the largest unit: one Celsius degree, one Kelvin degree, or one Fahrenheit degree a) one Celsius degree b) one Kelvin degree c) one Fahrenheit degree d) both one Celsius degree in addition to one Kelvin degree e) both one Fahrenheit degree in addition to one Celsius degree Question 16.1 Degrees Which is the largest unit: one Celsius degree, one Kelvin degree, or one Fahrenheit degree a) one Celsius degree b) one Kelvin degree c) one Fahrenheit degree d) both one Celsius degree in addition to one Kelvin degree e) both one Fahrenheit degree in addition to one Celsius degree The Celsius degree in addition to the Kelvin degree are the same size. The scales only differ by an offset, not by the size of the degree unit. For Fahrenheit, there are 180 degrees between boiling in addition to freezing (212°F–32°F). For Celsius, there are 100 degrees between the same points, so the Celsius ( in addition to Kelvin) degrees must be larger.

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Question 16.2 Freezing Cold It turns out that –40°C is the same temperature as –40°F. Is there a temperature at which the Kelvin in addition to Celsius scales agree a) yes, at 0°C b) yes, at 273°C c) yes, at 0 K d) no Question 16.2 Freezing Cold It turns out that –40°C is the same temperature as –40°F. Is there a temperature at which the Kelvin in addition to Celsius scales agree a) yes, at 0°C b) yes, at 273°C c) yes, at 0 K d) no The Celsius in addition to Kelvin scales differ only by an offset, which is 273 degrees. There as long as e, a temperature on one scale can never match the same numerical value on the other scale. The reason that such agreement is possible as long as Celsius in addition to Fahrenheit is the fact that the actual degree units have different sizes (recall the previous question). Question 16.3 Thermometers You may notice that if a mercury-in-glass thermometer is inserted into a hot liquid, the mercury column first drops, in addition to then later starts to rise (as you expect). How do you explain this drop a) the mercury contracts be as long as e the glass contracts b) the glass contracts be as long as e the mercury contracts c) the mercury contracts be as long as e the glass exp in addition to s d) the glass exp in addition to s be as long as e the mercury exp in addition to s e) the mercury exp in addition to s be as long as e the glass contracts

Question 16.3 Thermometers You may notice that if a mercury-in-glass thermometer is inserted into a hot liquid, the mercury column first drops, in addition to then later starts to rise (as you expect). How do you explain this drop a) the mercury contracts be as long as e the glass contracts b) the glass contracts be as long as e the mercury contracts c) the mercury contracts be as long as e the glass exp in addition to s d) the glass exp in addition to s be as long as e the mercury exp in addition to s e) the mercury exp in addition to s be as long as e the glass contracts The hot liquid touches the glass first, so initially the glass exp in addition to s slightly. This increases the volume inside the glass, in addition to so the mercury level drops slightly. Once the mercury heats up, it begins to exp in addition to in addition to then the characteristic rise in the mercury column follows, indicating the increase in temperature that you expected to measure. Follow-up: Is it possible to have the mercury first rise in addition to later drop Question 16.4 Glasses Two drinking glasses are stuck, one inside the other. How would you get them unstuck a) run hot water over them both b) put hot water in the inner one c) run hot water over the outer one d) run cold water over them both e) break the glasses Question 16.4 Glasses Two drinking glasses are stuck, one inside the other. How would you get them unstuck Running hot water over only the outer glass will allow the outer one to exp in addition to , while the inner glass remains relatively unchanged. This should loosen the outer glass in addition to free it. a) run hot water over them both b) put hot water in the inner one c) run hot water over the outer one d) run cold water over them both e) break the glasses

Question 16.5a Steel Expansion I A steel tape measure is marked such that it gives accurate length measurements at room temperature. If the tape measure is used outside on a very hot day, how will its length measurements be affected a) measured lengths will be too small b) measured lengths will still be accurate c) measured lengths will be too big Question 16.5a Steel Expansion I A steel tape measure is marked such that it gives accurate length measurements at room temperature. If the tape measure is used outside on a very hot day, how will its length measurements be affected a) measured lengths will be too small b) measured lengths will still be accurate c) measured lengths will be too big The tape measure will exp in addition to , so its markings will spread out farther than the correct amount. When it is laid down next to an object of fixed length, you will read too few markings as long as that given length, so the measured length will be too small. Metals such as brass exp in addition to when heated. The thin brass plate in the movie has a circular hole in its center. When the plate is heated, what will happen to the hole a) gets larger b) gets smaller c) stays the same d) vanishes Question 16.5b Steel Expansion II

Metals such as brass exp in addition to when heated. The thin brass plate in the movie has a circular hole in its center. When the plate is heated, what will happen to the hole a) gets larger b) gets smaller c) stays the same d) vanishes Imagine drawing a circle on the plate. This circle will exp in addition to outward along with the rest of the plate. Now replace the circle with the hole, in addition to you can see that the hole will exp in addition to outward as well. Note that the material does NOT “exp in addition to inward” to fill the hole!! Question 16.5b Steel Expansion II Question 16.6a Steel Ring I A steel ring st in addition to s on edge with a rod of some material inside. As this system is heated, as long as which of the following rod materials will the rod eventually touch the top of the ring a) aluminum b) steel c) glass d) aluminum in addition to steel e) all three Question 16.6a Steel Ring I A steel ring st in addition to s on edge with a rod of some material inside. As this system is heated, as long as which of the following rod materials will the rod eventually touch the top of the ring Aluminum is the only material that has a larger b value than the steel ring, so that means that the aluminum rod will exp in addition to more than the steel ring. Thus, only in that case does the rod have a chance of reaching the top of the steel ring. a) aluminum b) steel c) glass d) aluminum in addition to steel e) all three

Question 16.6b Steel Ring II You want to take apart a couple of aluminum parts held together by steel screws, but the screws are stuck. What should you do a) heat the thing up b) cool the thing down c) blow the thing up Question 16.6b Steel Ring II You want to take apart a couple of aluminum parts held together by steel screws, but the screws are stuck. What should you do Because aluminum has a larger b value, that means aluminum exp in addition to s more than steel. Thus, by heating the part, the aluminum holes will exp in addition to faster than the steel screws in addition to the screws will come loose. a) heat the thing up b) cool the thing down c) blow the thing up Question 16.7 Gr in addition to father Clock A gr in addition to father clock uses a brass pendulum to keep perfect time at room temperature. If the air conditioning breaks down on a very hot summer day, how will the gr in addition to father clock be affected a) clock will run slower than usual b) clock will still keep perfect time c) clock will run faster than usual

Question 16.7 Gr in addition to father Clock A gr in addition to father clock uses a brass pendulum to keep perfect time at room temperature. If the air conditioning breaks down on a very hot summer day, how will the gr in addition to father clock be affected a) clock will run slower than usual b) clock will still keep perfect time c) clock will run faster than usual The pendulum will exp in addition to , so its length will increase. The period of a pendulum depends on the length, as shown below, so the period will also increase. Thus, the clock will run slow. Follow-up: Roughly how much slower will it run Question 16.8a Thermal Contact I Two objects are made of the same material, but have different masses in addition to temperatures. If the objects are brought into thermal contact, which one will have the greater temperature change a) the one with the higher initial temperature b) the one with the lower initial temperature c) the one with the greater mass d) the one with the smaller mass e) the one with the higher specific heat Question 16.8a Thermal Contact I Two objects are made of the same material, but have different masses in addition to temperatures. If the objects are brought into thermal contact, which one will have the greater temperature change a) the one with the higher initial temperature b) the one with the lower initial temperature c) the one with the greater mass d) the one with the smaller mass e) the one with the higher specific heat Because the objects are made of the same material, the only difference between them is their mass. Clearly, the object with less mass will change temperature more easily because not much material is there (compared to the more massive object).

Question 16.8b Thermal Contact II Two different objects receive the same amount of heat. Which of the following choices is NOT a reason why the objects may have different temperature changes a) they have different initial temperatures b) they have different masses c) they have different specific heats Question 16.8b Thermal Contact II Two different objects receive the same amount of heat. Which of the following choices is NOT a reason why the objects may have different temperature changes a) they have different initial temperatures b) they have different masses c) they have different specific heats Because Q = m c DT in addition to the objects received the same amount of heat, the only other factors are the masses in addition to the specific heats. Although the initial temperature is certainly relevant as long as finding the final temperature, it does not have any effect on the temperature change DT. Question 16.9 Two Liquids Two equal-mass liquids, initially at the same temperature, are heated as long as the same time over the same stove. You measure the temperatures in addition to find that one liquid has a higher temperature than the other. Which liquid has a higher specific heat a) the cooler one b) the hotter one c) both the same

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Question 16.9 Two Liquids Two equal-mass liquids, initially at the same temperature, are heated as long as the same time over the same stove. You measure the temperatures in addition to find that one liquid has a higher temperature than the other. Which liquid has a higher specific heat Both liquids had the same increase in internal energy, because the same heat was added. But the cooler liquid had a lower temperature change. Because Q = mcDT, if Q in addition to m are both the same in addition to DT is smaller, then c (specific heat) must be bigger. a) the cooler one b) the hotter one c) both the same Question 16.10a Night on the Field The specific heat of concrete is greater than that of soil. A baseball field (with real soil) in addition to the surrounding parking lot are warmed up during a sunny day. Which would you expect to cool off faster in the evening when the sun goes down a) the concrete parking lot b) the baseball field c) both cool off equally fast Question 16.10a Night on the Field The specific heat of concrete is greater than that of soil. A baseball field (with real soil) in addition to the surrounding parking lot are warmed up during a sunny day. Which would you expect to cool off faster in the evening when the sun goes down a) the concrete parking lot b) the baseball field c) both cool off equally fast The baseball field, with the lower specific heat, will change temperature more readily, so it will cool off faster. The high specific heat of concrete allows it to “retain heat” better in addition to so it will not cool off so quickly—it has a higher “thermal inertia.”

Question 16.10b Night on the Beach Water has a higher specific heat than s in addition to . There as long as e, on the beach at night, breezes would blow: a) from the ocean to the beach b) from the beach to the ocean c) either way, makes no difference Question 16.10b Night on the Beach Water has a higher specific heat than s in addition to . There as long as e, on the beach at night, breezes would blow: Daytime sun heats both the beach in addition to the water beach heats up faster warmer air above beach rises cooler air from ocean moves in underneath breeze blows ocean l in addition to cs in addition to < cwater Nighttime sun has gone to sleep beach cools down faster warmer air is now above the ocean cooler air from beach moves out to the ocean breeze blows l in addition to ocean a) from the ocean to the beach b) from the beach to the ocean c) either way, makes no difference Question 16.11 Calorimetry 1 kg of water at 100°C is poured into a bucket that contains 4 kg of water at 0°C. Find the equilibrium temperature (neglect the influence of the bucket). a) 0°C b) 20°C c) 50°C d) 80°C e) 100°C Question 16.14 Radiation If the Sun’s surface temperature falls to half the current surface temperature, by what factor will the radiant energy reaching the Earth change a) increase by factor of 16 b) increase by factor of 4 c) it will remain the same d) decrease by factor of 4 e) decrease by factor of 16 Radiation energy is proportional to T4. So if temperature is halved, radiation energy will decrease by a factor of 16.

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