Cranium RTEC 233 Fall 2008 Week 1 & 2 Cranial Anatomy Calvaria Frontal Occipital

Cranium RTEC 233 Fall 2008 Week 1 & 2 Cranial Anatomy Calvaria Frontal Occipital www.phwiki.com

Cranium RTEC 233 Fall 2008 Week 1 & 2 Cranial Anatomy Calvaria Frontal Occipital

Masley, Ed, Music Reporter and Online Music Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Cranium RTEC 233 Fall 2008 Week 1 & 2 Cranial Anatomy Calvaria Frontal Occipital Left Parietal Right Parietal Floor Ethmoid Sphenoid Left Temporal Right Temporal The regions of the Cranial Floor Anterior: extends as long as m anterior frontal bone to the lesser wings of the sphenoid It is associated with frontal lobes of cerebellum Middle: Extends from lesser wings to the apices of petrous ridges of temporal bone Accommodates temporal lobes in addition to associated neurovascular structures Posterior: deep depression posterior to petrous ridge which protects cerebellum, pons in addition to medulla oblongata

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Frontal Bone Has a vertical in addition to horizontal portion Vertical portion- as long as ms the as long as ehead in addition to anterior part of the vault Horizontal portion- as long as ms roof of orbits, part of the roof of nasal cavity, in addition to greater part of anterior cranial fossa. Parietal Bone Forms large part of sides of the cranium Forms posterior portion of the cranial floor Parietal eminence is used to measure width of head Occipital Bone Inferosuperior portion of calvaria Squamous portion is superior to inion Ext. occipital protuberance – prominent bulge Contains as long as amen magnum in addition to articulates with atlas (C1)

Ethmoid Bone Horizontal portion is called cribi as long as m plate Vertical portion is called perpendicular plate 2 light spongy labyrinths Sphenoid Bone Resembles shape of a bat Consists of a body, 2 lesser wings, 2 greater wings, 2 pterygoid processes Contains Sella turcica- important as long as positioning errors Sella Turcica Lies in the MSP ¾” anterior & superior to EAM De as long as mity of the sella is often the only clue that a lesion exists intracranially

Temporal Bone Divided in 3 parts Squamous: upper portion as long as ming part of the wall of skull Mastoid: Posterior to EAM contains mastoid tip (process) Petrous: dense & houses organs of hearing in addition to balance Thickest most dense bone in cranium Level of TEA Superior Cranium Visualized more clearly: Sphenoid Temporals Occipital Frontal Not well visualized: Ethmoid Parietals Copyright © 2003, Mosby, Inc. Lateral Cranium From this view you can visualize all the cranial bones Copyright © 2003, Mosby, Inc.

Infant Sutures & Fontanels Anterior Close approx 2 years 2 Mastoids Close approx 2 years 2 Sphenoidal 1-3 months old Posterior 1-3 months Copyright © 2003, Mosby, Inc. Adult Sutures in addition to Junctions Sutures: Coronal Sagittal Squamosal Lamboidal Junctions Bregma Lambda Pterion Asterion Copyright © 2003, Mosby, Inc. Lets compare Infant Anterior fontanel Posterior fontanel Sphenoidal fontanels Mastoidal fontanels Adult Bregma Lambda Pterions Asterions

Anterior Cranium Not able to visualize: Occipital Ethmoid Able to visualize: Parietals Frontal Sphenoid Temporals Copyright © 2003, Mosby, Inc. Cranial Topography Surface L in addition to marks

Skull morphology Mesocephalic: average 47 degrees Brachycephalic: Short in addition to broad Width 80% or greater than length 54 degrees Dolichocephalic: long in addition to narrow Width is less than 75% than the length 40 degrees Skull Positioning Lines Skull Topography Glabella Inner canthus Outer canthus Nasion Infraorbital margin Acanthion Gonion Mental point External auditory meatus (EAM) Auricular point Top of ear attachment (TEA) Be able to locate the following l in addition to marks:

Radiographic L in addition to marks Interpupillary line (IPL) Perpendicular line between pupils of eyes Acanthiomeatal line (AML) From acanthion to EAM Mentomeatal line (MML) From mental point (center of chin) to EAM Radiographic L in addition to marks Orbitomeatal line (OML) From outer canthus to EAM Infraorbitomeatal line (IOML) From infraorbital margin to EAM Glabellomeatal line (GML) From glabella to EAM Positioning Aids Use any straightedge: Straw Pen/pencil

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Most Common Positioning Errors Rotation Tilt Excessive Flexion Excessive Extension Incorrect CR angle Rotation Tilt Copyright © 2005, Mosby, Inc. Indications as long as Cranial Radiography Skull fractures Linear Depressed Basal skull Gunshot wounds Pituitary Adenomas Subdural hematoma Neoplasms Metastases Osteolytic Osteoblastic Combo of both Multiple myeloma Paget’s Disease Acoustic neuroma http://www.skullbaseinstitute.com/video-pituitary-tumor.htm http://www.skullbaseinstitute.com/video-acoustic-neuroma.htm

Disinfect the Table or Bucky!! Cleanliness Hair in addition to skin of face are naturally oily; illness often increases oiliness Cranial procedures require direct contact of patient’s face with VBS Clean device after each patient Wash your h in addition to s!!! Radiation Protection Collimate to anatomy of interest Shield gonads/abdomen of pediatric patients in addition to those of reproductive age Shield thyroid in addition to thymus of pediatric patient when doing so will not interfere with demonstration of anatomy of interest Good communication in addition to positioning skills reduce chance of need as long as repeat radiographs

What is wrong with this lateral skull What is wrong with this Towne’s

Masley, Ed Music Reporter and Online Music Editor

Masley, Ed is from United States and they belong to Arizona Republic and they are from  Phoenix, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Masley, Ed deal with the subjects like Country Music; Hip-Hop/Rap/Urban Music; Jazz; Latin Music; Music; Music Industry; Rock and Alternative Music

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