DAY CARE INFECTIONS13 million children under 5 years of age use child care servi
Bicknell, Jacqueline, Group Publisher has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal DAY CARE INFECTIONS13 million children under 5 years of age use child care services.National Center as long as Health Statistics, 201090 percent of families with preschool children use child care services.National Commission on Children, 2010
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TYPES OF DAY CARE SETTINGSSmall family child-care home6 childrenlicensing not requiredLarge family child-care home7-12 childrenvariable licensing requirementsCenters13 childrenLicensedFacilities as long as ill childrenFacilities as long as children with special needsAPHA/AAP Out-of-Home Child Care Guidelines, 1992.HIGH RISK PERSONNELSusceptible to childhood infections (measles, mumps, chickenpox, etc.)ImmunocompromisedaspleniacancertransplantationHIVPregnant womenGrossman Ed 8, Infection Control in the Child Care Center,Demos Medical Publisher, 2012HIGH RISK CHILDREN Risk Factors:InfancyImmunocompromisedChronic lung diseaseCardiac diseasePhysical h in addition to icapsChronic skin diseaseGrossman, Ed 8, Infection Control in the Child Care Center,Demos Medical Publisher, 2012.
HIGH RISK CHILDREN FOR SPREADING INFECTIONChildren living in impoverished conditionsmultiple care giverstransient family or shelterpoor sanitary conditionsuntreated infections in the homeChildren from developing nationsChildren with immune deficienciesChildren with chronic infectionsDAY CARE FACTORS THAT INCREASE TRANSMISSION OF PATHOGENSLarge numbers of children in close contactInfants in addition to toddlers haveno independent personal hygieneare incontinentput everything in their mouthsChildren are susceptible to most infectious agentsInfected children may be contagious be as long as e symptomaticParvovirus B19VaricellaInfected children may be asymptomaticGiardiaHepatitis ARESPIRATORY TRANSMISSIONBacteriaBordetella pertussisHaemophilus influenzae type BMycobacterium tuberculosisNeisseria meningitidisStreptococcus pneumoniaeVirusesAdenovirusInfluenzaMeaslesParainfluenzaParvovirus B19Respiratory syncytial virusRhinovirusRubellaVaricella
FECAL-ORAL TRANSMISSIONTRANSMISSION BY SKIN OR MUCOUS MEMBRANE CONTACTTRANSMISSION BY INOCULATION OR SPLATTERING OF BLOODCytomegalovirusHepatitis BHepatitis CHuman immunodeficiency virus
ILLNESSES AND ABSENTEESIM IN DAY CARE CHILDREN (2 YEAR SURVEILLANCE PERIOD)ANTIBIOTIC USE IN DAY CARE CHILDREN (2 MONTH SURVEILLANCE PERIOD)ENVIRONMENTAL COLIFORM CONTAMINATION (2946 SAMPLES) Number Contaminated (%)Inanimate objects 307 (15)Toy balls 73 (46)H in addition to s 131 (17)Van et al, JAMA, 1991.
HEPATITIS AChild care attendees or employees account as long as 14% of all cases of Hepatitis A in the United States.ETIOLOGIC AGENTSmall non-enveloped RNA virus
EPIDEMIOLOGYSourceinfected humanHigh risk child care centerslarge numbers of childrenlonger hoursdiapered childrenMode of spreadfecal-oralCLINICAL MANIFESTATIONSMost children are asymptomatic80% of adults are symptomaticRashFatigueJaundiceAnorexiaDark urineLight stoolsVomiting
INCUBATION PERIOD15 to 50 daysINFECTIOUS PERIODAmong symptomatic persons, infectivity has waned by the time the individual seeks medical care.Hepatitis A serologySupportiveDIAGNOSISTHERAPY
ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR STAFFMedical historyImmunizationsDiphtheria-TetanusHepatitis AHepatitis BInfluenzaMumpsPolioRubellaRubeolaVaricella(Pertussis)EXCLUSION FROM CHILD CARE
Bicknell, Jacqueline Group Publisher
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