Deep Underground Science in addition to Engineering Laboratory Worldwide Dem in addition to & Internati

Deep Underground Science in addition to Engineering Laboratory Worldwide Dem in addition to & Internati www.phwiki.com

Deep Underground Science in addition to Engineering Laboratory Worldwide Dem in addition to & Internati

Winters, Brian, On Air Personality/Music Director/Program Director/PSA Director has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Deep Underground Science in addition to Engineering Laboratory Worldwide Dem in addition to & International Coordination Barry Barish Caltech University of Colorado Workshop Boulder, CO, January 4–7, 2005 My Perspectives MACRO at Gran Sasso – 10 years of underground physics MINOS – Long Baseline Neutrinos NFAC – Neutrino Facilities Assesment Committee as long as the NAS/NRC (2002) NSB – National Science Board (MREFC Process as long as the NSF) (2002 – 2008) NFAC Neutrino Facilities Assessment Committee Barry Barish Chair 5-Nov-02 as long as National Research Council

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NFAC Membership NFAC – Important Considerations NFAC is asked to address to what extent the science “can be addressed with existing, soon to be completed, or planned facilities around the world.” We had presentations at our meetings to try to underst in addition to the global context of the proposed U.S. initiatives. NFAC is asked to assess “the unique capabilities of each class of new experiments in addition to any possible redundancy between these two types of facilities.” Our study in addition to report are being developed with the full consideration of the recommendations in several recent reports: The NRC Report “Connecting Quarks in addition to the Cosmos: Eleven Science Questions as long as the New Century,” The NSAC Long Range Report as long as Nuclear Physics The HEPAP Long Range Report as long as High Energy Physics

Why Deep Underground A clean, quiet in addition to isolated setting is needed to study rare phenomena free from environmental background. Such a setting can be obtained only deep underground, where we can escape the rain of cosmic rays from outer space. Why do neutrinos have tiny masses in addition to how do they trans as long as m into one another Are the existence in addition to stability of ordinary matter related to neutrino properties Are there additional types of neutrinos What is the mysterious dark matter in addition to how much of it is neutrinos What role do neutrinos play in the synthesis of the elements in the periodic table Is there a deeper simplicity underlying the as long as ces in addition to particles we see Conclusions Important future experiments on solar neutrinos, double beta decay, dark matter, long baseline neutrinos, proton decay, in addition to stellar processes are being devised, proposed in addition to discussed. We find that a common feature of the future experimentation in this field is the importance of depth. Most of the experiments envisaged require an overburden of about 4500 mwe or more. To optimize long baseline studies of neutrino oscillations, a new underground facility should be located at a distance greater than 1000 km from existing, high intensity proton accelerators. The breadth in addition to quality of the potential future experimental program requiring an underground location suggests that there is a major opportunity as long as the United States if it can soon develop a large new underground facility with the ability to meet the requirements of the broad range of proposed experiments. Deep Underground Laboratory Assessment: A deep underground laboratory can house a new generation of experiments that will advance our underst in addition to ing of the fundamental properties of neutrinos in addition to the as long as ces that govern the elementary particles, as well as shedding light on the nature of the dark matter that holds the Universe together. Recent discoveries about neutrinos, new ideas in addition to technologies, in addition to the scientific leadership that exists in the U.S. make the time ripe to build such a unique facility. It will require considerable strategic in addition to technical guidance, in order to construct a deep underground laboratory expeditiously in addition to in synergy with the research program. Critical decisions that are beyond the scope of this report remain: choosing between several viable site options, defining the scope of the laboratory, defining the nature of the laboratory staff in addition to the management organization, the site infrastructure in addition to the level of technical support that will be resident. Developing sound experimental proposals will require early access to deep underground facilities to per as long as m necessary R&D. There as long as e, it is important to complete the process of setting the scope in addition to goals as long as the laboratory, soliciting in addition to reviewing proposals, in addition to building up the necessary infrastructure, in order to initiate the experimental program in a timely fashion.

The Science Prospects Underground Neutrino Properties Solar Neutrinos Neutrino Oscillations Double Beta Decay Dark Matter Proton Decay etc These generally represent exciting in addition to important identified areas of “inquiry” that typically lead to generations of investigations — This should be contrasted with justifications in astronomy – an “observationally” based science Solar n’s : the Birth of Neutrino Astrophysics The detection of neutrinos coming from the sun in addition to from an exploding star, discoveries from underground experiments of the past decades, were recognized in the 2002 Nobel physics prize. Kamiok in addition to e – Koshiba Homestake – Davis 37Cl + ne 37Ar + e Solar Neutrinos Supernovae 1987a The Sun as seen from SuperKamiok in addition to e deep underground

SNO shows the deficit is due to neutrino flavor change or “neutrino oscillations” SNO Reactor Neutrinos – KamLAND Observe oscillation effects with terrestrial neutrinos Further determine the parameters of neutrino oscillations Solar Neutrinos – The Future In the st in addition to ard solar model the flux from the pp reaction is predicted to an accuracy of 1%. Further, the total flux is related directly to the measured solar optical luminosity. Such a copious in addition to well-understood source of neutrinos is ideal as long as precisely determining the neutrino masses in addition to mixings. It also af as long as ds a way to search as long as hypothesized sterile neutrinos as much as a million times lighter than those explored by present experiments, provided they mixed sufficiently with the active neutrinos. Un as long as tunately, the pp neutrinos have very low energies presenting an experimental in addition to technical challenge

The Long Range – Solar Neutrinos Two types of experiment are required, both sensitive to the lowest-energy neutrinos. One experiment measures the electron-flavor component by the “charged-current” (CC) reaction The other measures a combination of electron, mu in addition to tau neutrinos via elastic scattering from electrons (the ES reaction) Large background mitigation required, so deep sites are required. Several technologies being pursued – need underground testing XMASS – Liquid Xenon Clean – Liquid Neon Atmospheric Neutrinos m e nm ne Angular distribution of neutrino events yields neutrino rate vs path length Angular distributions in addition to deficit both consistent with neutrino oscillation hypothesis in addition to with each other

Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments Neutrino Masses in addition to Admixtures Next generation neutrino oscillation experiments aim to determine the admixtures in addition to mass differences but not their absolute scale. Experiments on the neutrinoless double beta decay would supply the crucial in as long as mation on the absolute scale. The electron-type component mixed in the 3rd state, called q13, is not known The potential differences between neutrinos in addition to antineutrinos are also unknown Two possible patterns The longer term future will involve determination of q13 in addition to possibly measuring CP violation in the neutrino sector with another generation of long base line experiments Accelerators neutrino factory – neutrinos from muon collider muon collider neutrino beams select nm’s or anti nm’s Example 7400 km baseline CERN DUSEL “world project”

Concept as long as Next Generation Proton Decay/Neutrino Oscillation Detector Goals: Dirac or Majorana particle Ettore Majorana Majorana : The neutrino is its own antiparticle Dirac vs Majorana mass Majorana mass is measured by double beta decay Use Nuclei stable under normal beta decay, but decay by a double weak interaction process. Changes charge two units Two neutrinos are emitted. If neutrinos have Majorana mass, a vertex with no external neutrinos is possible. Some models predict very low values as long as neutrinoless double beta decay, still allowing the physical masses of all neutrinos to be orders of magnitudes larger than the observed limit of effective Majorana mass. 2nbb 0nbbB 0nbb E1 + E2 (MeV)

Winters, Brian KZKE-FM On Air Personality/Music Director/Program Director/PSA Director www.phwiki.com

Dark Matter – Direct Searches Will Require Going To A Deep Site Future Goals Andrew Hime High Energy Cosmic Ray Spectrum protons heavy nuclei extra galactic GZK cutoff

INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory 1400 m rock overburden Flat cross-section Underground area 18 000 m2 Support facilities on the surface Kamioka Observatory KamLAND (operated by Tohoku Univ.) Super-Kamiok in addition to e 1000 m rock overburden The mine is no more active Support facilities on the surface XMASS R&D Tokyo Dark Matter exp Plot type GW detectors 20m×20m 100m×100m (Cryogenic) 100m To mine entrance (1.8km from SK) SNO Laboratory 2000 m rock overburden Almost flat surface Support facilities on the surface Vertical access Main cavity ~10,000m3 Solar neutrino oscillation !

Collaborations, Resources in addition to a Coordinated Worldwide Program The scale in addition to technical dem in addition to s of the experiments that will confront the science goals will require – Ambitious technical development Large collaborations Significant resources Professional engineering Management To meet these dem in addition to s poses many questions Collaborations, Resources in addition to a Coordinated Worldwide Program More coordination in addition to resources will be required, without inhibiting the variety of ideas in addition to approaches New underground facilities will be needed – A next generation p decay experiment in addition to /or n CP violation will require large new space in addition to support deep underground Ultimate dark matter experiments will require (a) well supported deep site(s). etc. The New SNOLAB facilities will be only a partial answer Final Thoughts – Questions The Worldwide Underground Program How can we increase level of the R&D toward future detectors How can we set up mechanisms to coordinate in addition to set priorities as long as large international initiatives PaNAGIC How can we get the larger resources needed to reach the exciting science goals U.S. Deep Underground Laboratory Initiative Should we propose a large multipurpose laboratory or a distributed laboratory Should the huge proton decay / neutrino experiment be treated as the center piece or a possible option What mechanisms can be put into place to bring the level of engineering in addition to project management as long as large underground experiments up to “accelerator” st in addition to ards

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