Defining Regionalism Objectives Transnational Advocacy in East Asia

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Defining Regionalism Objectives Transnational Advocacy in East Asia

Cleary College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Transnational Advocacy in East AsiaA New Dimension in Regionalism?ObjectivesWhat is the nature of regionalism in East Asia & relationship so that ?civil society??As a new component of ?civil society?, how does transnational advocacy function?What are the implications in consideration of Asia-Europe relations?Defining RegionalismApplying Western conceptsAsian style regionalism?Conclusion Civil society projects do not necessarily map onto understandings of regionalism

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Regionalism in East AsiaInstitutionalised: 1967 ASEAN (AFTA)1997 ASEAN Plus Three2005 East Asia SummitDeveloping an East Asian Community?Regionalism & Civil SocietyDifferent institutional & discursive parameters in consideration of civil society representatives Regionalism as ?central element in global governance? offering new spaces in consideration of ?civil society activism? (Grugel 2006: 210)Or ?transformative regionalism is partly a defensive reaction mounted by those left out of the mosaic of globalisation? (Mittelman 2000: 128-9)

2008 ASEAN Charter in consideration of ASEAN Peoples?platform in consideration of engagement alongside representatives from governmental agencies, educational institutes in addition to civil society organisations? ( aseansec ) Defining TANsNetworks = agents of change role of intermediate & advocate between those in power & marginalized (Hudson 2001: 333)Edwards & FoleySocializerswelfare providerspoliticizers. (Edwards in addition to Foley 2001: 5) Within ?civil society? lit.Alagappa ?tendency in Asia, as elsewhere, so that bracket civil society, idealize it as the moral conscience of society, & project its development as critical in consideration of democratic transition in addition to consolidation? (2004: 6)Win: need so that protest against hardships of rapid economic development on marginalized communities. -concurrent economic & political rise of urban middle classes (1998: 104)

Policy advocacy organizations: strategies, outcomes, in addition to performance Data Analyses, findings, Next steps

Link so that NGOsRapid growth in number of NGOs in East Asia since 1990s?Asian arm? so that several international movementsNeed in consideration of domestic groups so that act regionally:confront transborder problems & address particular ?local? needs1980s increased funding & international changes?New? topicsGreater state ?acceptance? of NGOsAgainst this growing backgroundmore resourcesexperienceshared knowledgeawareness of obstaclesSpurred development & consolidation of inter-NGO networks. In East Asia such political layering resulted in new transnational networks, esp. re. environmental protection (Kock 2006; Reimann 2005) Organisation of networksFrom large-scale groups so that small-scale, local ad hoc groupsAddressing plethora of issues (eg in name environmentalism or anti-globalization) so that localized targetsParticipate within, or alongside international events or conferences (eg International Women?s Conference or Asia-Europe Meeting, ASEM)summits may offer forum in consideration of networking & socialization among NGO agentsMay have no direct control of resourcesMay lack transparency & coordinationMay create ?collective intentionality? (Park 2004), but ?inter-network politics? can constrain a group?s ability so that come so that decisions & take collective action (Carpenter 2007: 644).

StrategiesActive lobbyist & advocacy campaigns seek explanation, justification & redressNetwork-oriented groups seek so that develop relations alongside like-minded groups & make their purpose & structures more professional. May develop & refine common strategies & share best practice come so that share ?collective action frames? (Mundy in addition to Murphy 2001)Framework in consideration of TANsPersonal linkagesOrganisationStrategiesTANs in AsiaPan-Pacific & South-East Asian Women?s AssociationCenter in consideration of Asia-Pacific Women in PoliticsAsia Pacific Women, Law & Development ( apwld ) Asia Pacific Human Rights Network Asia-Pacific Women?s Watch Asia-Europe People?s ForumLocal chapters (Amnesty, Transparency International)

Forum-Asia40 organisations from 15 Asian states; issued from consultations among human rights & development NGOs in Manila in December 1991Diverse NGOs Formal structuresBroad remit so that establish in addition to protect fundamental human rightsuniversal declarations & localised demands Asian NGO Coalition in consideration of Agrarian Reform & Rural Development (ANGOC, 1979)Regional network of 21 national & regional NGOsfrom 11 Asian countries focused on food security, agrarian reform, sustainable agriculture & rural development activities ( angoc.ngo.ph)From World Conference on Agrarian Reform & Rural Development (under FAO)Disparate, focusing on particular needs of marginalised target communitiesPersonal linkagesLocal groups seizing opportunity in consideration of external representationSocialization process through participation in & alongside larger fora Lead so that new groups

OrganisationLevel of professionalisationAccountability & transparency structures & formalisationStrategiesForum-Asia: aims so that ?empower people by advocating social justice, sustainable human development?collaboration & cooperation among human rights? organisations in the regionestablish network of organisations at local & global levels amalgamation of interests (broad scope)Influence global fora (eg UN)Target = regional statesANGOC: ?create a policy in addition to social environment that enables Asian Rural Poor Communities so that exercise their rights so that participatory development?promote alternative development experiencesstrengthen grassroots networksFacilitate communicationLink alongside regional & international groups, eg ADB & UNCED Spawned other groups

Targeting stateseg Forum-Asia statements so that UN Human Rights Council in Geneva included concerns over police assaults on freedom of expression in South Korea; calls in consideration of Sri Lankan government so that facilitate human assistance in consideration of internally displaced people; report on deportation of Tibetan refugees by Nepali government Nature of the regionNo clear idea of regionFluid structures may be loosely based on geographical framePrimarily attached so that specific targetsRegion used in consideration of particular purposes:eg Forum-Asia records need so that strengthen its ?regional dimension?implied idea rather than institutionalised Discursive valueANGOC aims so that promote sustainable development by building on common ?Asian identity in addition to values?PPSEAWA broad ?Pan Pacific? & ?Southeast Asia? region – bolster community of interests, but region is not identifying agent

Concluding commentsNot simply one way of framing the region of Asia, either cognitively or institutionallyConcept of region employed by transnational networks is affected by personal linkages, ways in which groups are organized & the strategies they adopt.Note on Asia-EuropeSocialisation ? intra-regional network building?Consolidation of advocacy networks ? greater professionalisation & topic breadthNo interregional impact ? disparate groups; does not map state regionalismReferencesAcharya, A. (2003) ?Democratisation in addition to the Prospects in consideration of Participatory Regionalism in Southeast Asia?, Third World Quarterly, 24(2): 375-90.Alagappa, M. (ed.) (2004) Civil Society in addition to Political Change in Asia: Expanding in addition to Contracting Democratic Space, Stanford: Stanford University Press.Armstrong, D., Lloyd, L. in addition to Redmond, J. (2004) International Organisation in World Politics, Houndsmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Carpenter, R.C. (2007) ?Studying Issue (Non)-Adoption in Transnational Advocacy Networks?, International Organization, 61: 643?7.Clark, A.M., Friedman, E.J. in addition to Hochstetler, K. (1998) ?The Sovereign Limits of Global Civil Society: A Comparison of NGO Participation in UN World Conferences on the Environment, Human Rights, in addition to Women?, World Politics 51(1): 1?35.Cohen, R. in addition to Rai, S.M. (eds) (2000) Global Social Movements, London: Athlone Press.Cummings, S., Heeks, R. in addition to Huysman, M. (2006) ?Knowledge in addition to Learning in Online Networks in Development: a Social-Capital Perspective?, Development in Practice, 16(6): 570-86.Della Porta, D., Andretta, M., Mosca, L. in addition to Reiter, H. (2006) Globalization from Below: Transnational Activists in addition to Protest Networks, Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press.Duffield, M. (1994) ?Complex Emergencies in addition to the Crisis of Developmentalism?, Institute of Development Studies Bulletin, 25(4): 37-45.Ebrahim, A. in addition to Weisband, E. (eds) (2007) Forging Global Accountabilities: Participation, Pluralism in addition to Public Ethics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Edwards, B. in addition to Foley, M.W. (2001) ?Civil Society in addition to Social Capital: A Primer?, in B. Edwards, M.W. Foley in addition to M. Dini (eds) Beyond Tocqueville: Civil Society in addition to the Social Capital Debate in Comparative Perspective, Hanover, NH: University Press of New Hampshire.Evans, P. (2000) ?Fighting marginalization alongside transnational networks: counter-hegemonic globalization?, Contemporary Sociology, 29: 230?41.Gilson, J. (2009) ?Learning so that Learn in addition to Building Communities of Practice: Non-governmental Organisations in addition to Examples from Mine Action in Southeast Asia?, Global Society, 23(3): 269-93.

Grugel, J. (2006) ?Regionalist governance in addition to transnational collective action in Latin America?, Economy in addition to Society, 35(2): 209-31.Harlow, C. in addition to Rawlings, R. (2006) ?Accountability in addition to Law Enforcement: The Centralised EU Infringement Procedure?, European Law Review, 4: 447-75.Hudson, A. (2001) ?NGOs? transnational advocacy networks: from ?legitimacy? so that ?political responsibility???, Global Networks, 1(4): 331-52.Human Rights Watch (1998) Human Rights Watch World Report, New York: Human Rights Watch.Keck, M. in addition to Sikkink, K. (1998) Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Keck, M.E. in addition to Sikkink, K. (1999) ?Transnational Advocacy Networks in International in addition to Regional Politics?, International Social Science Journal, 159: 88-99.Kim, J. (2004) ?Accountability, Governance, in addition to Non-Governmental Organizations: A Comparative Study of Twelve Asia-Pacific Nations?, The International Society in consideration of Third-Sector Research (ISTR) ?Contesting Citizenship in addition to Civil Society in a Divided World?, Toronto: Ryerson University in addition to York University, 11-14 July. Online. Available HTTPÿ: (accessed on 17 March 2009).Kock, B.E. (2006) ?Engaging Non-Governmental Organizations alongside International Environmental Negotiations: Institutional Approaches so that Reforming State-NGO Interactions?. Online. Available HTTP: (accessed on 17 March 2009).Lerche, J. (2008) ?Transnational Advocacy Networks in addition to Affirmative Action in consideration of Dalits in India?, Development in addition to Change, 39(2): 239?61.McCarthy, J.D. (1997) ?The Globalization of Social Movement Theory?, in J. Smith, C. Chatfield in addition to R. 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(2004) ?The Role of Transnational Advocacy Networks in Reconstituting International Organization Identities?, Seton Hall Journal of Diplomacy in addition to International Relations, Summer/Fall: 79-92. Reimann, K. (2005) ?Transnational NGO Networks, the Asian Development Bank in addition to the Rise of Society in Regional Politics in East Asia?,ÿPaper presented at the International Studies Association, Honolulu, Hawaii, March. Online. Available HTTP: (accessed on 17 March 2009).Riker, J. (1995) ?Contending Perspectives in consideration of Interpreting Government-NGO Relations in South in addition to Southeast Asia?, in N. Heyzer, J. Riker in addition to A. Quizon (eds) Government-NGO Relations in Asia: Prospects in addition to Challenges in consideration of People-Centred Development, Basingstoke: Macmillan.Rumford, C. 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Journal Ratings by Cleary College

This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Concluding commentsNot simply one way of framing the region of Asia, either cognitively or institutionallyConcept of region employed by transnational networks is affected by personal linkages, ways in which groups are organized & the strategies they adopt.Note on Asia-EuropeSocialisation ? intra-regional network building?Consolidation of advocacy networks ? greater professionalisation & topic breadthNo interregional impact ? disparate groups; does not map state regionalismReferencesAcharya, A. (2003) ?Democratisation in addition to the Prospects in consideration of Participatory Regionalism in Southeast Asia?, Third World Quarterly, 24(2): 375-90.Alagappa, M. (ed.) (2004) Civil Society in addition to Political Change in Asia: Expanding in addition to Contracting Democratic Space, Stanford: Stanford University Press.Armstrong, D., Lloyd, L. in addition to Redmond, J. (2004) International Organisation in World Politics, Houndsmills: Palgrave Macmillan.Carpenter, R.C. (2007) ?Studying Issue (Non)-Adoption in Transnational Advocacy Networks?, International Organization, 61: 643?7.Clark, A.M., Friedman, E.J. in addition to Hochstetler, K. (1998) ?The Sovereign Limits of Global Civil Society: A Comparison of NGO Participation in UN World Conferences on the Environment, Human Rights, in addition to Women?, World Politics 51(1): 1?35.Cohen, R. in addition to Rai, S.M. (eds) (2000) Global Social Movements, London: Athlone Press.Cummings, S., Heeks, R. in addition to Huysman, M. (2006) ?Knowledge in addition to Learning in Online Networks in Development: a Social-Capital Perspective?, Development in Practice, 16(6): 570-86.Della Porta, D., Andretta, M., Mosca, L. in addition to Reiter, H. (2006) Globalization from Below: Transnational Activists in addition to Protest Networks, Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press.Duffield, M. (1994) ?Complex Emergencies in addition to the Crisis of Developmentalism?, Institute of Development Studies Bulletin, 25(4): 37-45.Ebrahim, A. in addition to Weisband, E. (eds) (2007) Forging Global Accountabilities: Participation, Pluralism in addition to Public Ethics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Edwards, B. in addition to Foley, M.W. (2001) ?Civil Society in addition to Social Capital: A Primer?, in B. Edwards, M.W. Foley in addition to M. Dini (eds) Beyond Tocqueville: Civil Society in addition to the Social Capital Debate in Comparative Perspective, Hanover, NH: University Press of New Hampshire.Evans, P. (2000) ?Fighting marginalization alongside transnational networks: counter-hegemonic globalization?, Contemporary Sociology, 29: 230?41.Gilson, J. (2009) ?Learning so that Learn in addition to Building Communities of Practice: Non-governmental Organisations in addition to Examples from Mine Action in Southeast Asia?, Global Society, 23(3): 269-93. and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.