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Definition of Mental Retardation (Sarason & Sarason, 2005) Our Interest Experiential Accounts of the Challenges of Parents alongside Mental Retardation
Boston College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Experiential Accounts of the Challenges of Parents alongside Mental Retardation Alexis Palfreyman Rachel Weisenbach Hanover College Our Interest Definition of Mental Retardation (Sarason & Sarason, 2005) Individuals must meet the following three criteria: IQ of 70 or below Deficits in functioning (e.g. self-care in addition to social skills) Diagnosed before the age of 18 years
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Statistics Approximately 15% of American parents have some type of disability (Parents alongside disabilities, 1998). The prevalence rate of mental retardation is about 1%. (Carson-Dewitt, R. & Ford-Martin, P.A., 2005). Social Beliefs in addition to Concerns Sterilization was the norm through the 1970s in consideration of persons alongside MR (Aunos, M. & Feldman, M.A., 2002). Approximately 75% of parents were against their children marrying in addition to raising children (Aunos, M. & Feldman, M.A., 2002). Parents alongside MR have most commonly been described as abusive in addition to neglectful, therefore the child?s physical in addition to emotional health have become primary concerns (Tymchuk, 1992). Parenting Programs ??it is generally agreed that many of these parents could function competently alongside training in addition to support (Tymchuk, A.J. & Feldman, M.A., 1991).?
Research Questions What challenges of parents alongside mental retardation can be identified? What are some commonalities among this population? What are some differences? Participants Nine participants were recruited through Noble of Indiana Participants were all diagnosed alongside mental retardation before the age of 18 years All participants were their own legal guardians Seven mothers, two fathers Age range was 26 so that 59 years Seven African Americans, Two Caucasians Range of marital status, custody, living situations Procedure Interviews were conducted at Noble of Indiana Informed consents Semi-structured interviews based on questionnaire Interviews recorded Debriefing Interviews transcribed Client records obtained in addition to reviewed
Data Structures in addition to Algorithms in consideration of Information Processing Outline Search Algorithms Search Algorithms Search Algorithms: Two Broad Categories The Simplest Search: Serial Lookup Pseudocode in consideration of Serial Search Analysis in consideration of Serial Search A Useful Combinatorial Identity Visual Counting Visual Counting Visual Counting Visual Counting Binary Search Idea of Binary Search Interface in consideration of Binary Search Implementation Implementation Implementation Boundary Cases Binary Search alongside Other Data Structures Analysis of Binary Search Average Case Binary Search is Limited Improving Binary Search Interpolation Search Comparing Log N so that Log(Log N) Comparing Log(N) so that Log(Log N) Hashing Open Address Hashing Open Address Hashing A Basic Hash Table The Hash Function Calculating the Index Inserting an Item Inserting an Item Double Hashing Double Hashing Issues alongside O-A Hashing Chained Hashing Answer Chained Hashing Java HashMap
Sample Questions from Questionnaire: General demographics How did you feel when you found out you were becoming a parent? Who helped you during the pregnancy/when you were getting ready in consideration of the child? Did you take part in any parenting programs? What help did your doctor give you? Who helps you now alongside your child? When your first born arrived, what was the hardest thing? Mode of Analysis Based on Interpretative Phenomenological Approach (Willig, C., 2001) Initial encounter Identification of themes Clustering of themes Production of summary table Integrating cases Participant A: Lisa
Findings Sources of Help All participants discussed using a combination of sources so that assist them. All participants mentioned family in addition to staff, in addition to some participants mentioned friends, health care team, in addition to parenting programs. Parenting Programs 5 participants took parenting classes Reasons in consideration of taking a parenting class Reactions so that classes Difficulties Participants struggled alongside a range of issues in addition to there was not one dominant difficulty in consideration of all participants. Parent-Child Interactions Four participants felt they had difficulties in this area. Linked alongside Communication Types of interaction difficulties
Discussion Clusters in addition to themes appear across participants Sources of Help Parenting Programs Difficulties Parent-Child Interactions Discussion Integration of our subjective data alongside previous research is contributing so that a more holistic understanding of these individuals? experiences. Parents discussed Difficulties that previous research did not mention (e.g. transitions, transportation). Not all participants struggled alongside tasks that previous research has consistently addressed. Implications in addition to Applications Information gained from our study may be useful in designing programs that address a wider range of parenting issues. Parents alongside MR cannot utilize the same resources as other parents. Our awareness of their needs will help us create in addition to provide access so that the best resources.
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