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Definition of Psychology Psychology is the science of human behavior Goals
Drake University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Definition of Psychology Psychology is the science of human behavior Goals of psychology? same as in consideration of any other science To build an organized body of knowledge of its subject matter develop valid, reliable explanations in consideration of the phenomenon in its domain. Ways of knowing Science is but one way of understanding the world other ways? Common Sense Wear a coat in addition to hat or catch a cold? Many common sense notions are contradictory absence makes the heart grow fonder out of sight out of mind birds of a feather flock together opposites attract
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Magical view of the world Two broad classes imitative magic (law of similarity) make yourself like what you want so that achieve Malaysian woman gathering rice or imitate the action Rain dance contagious magic (law of contact) Wotjobaluk tribe of Victoria Australia opossum rug similarities between magical in addition to scientific views causal reasoning seismologist palm readers Manipulation of antecedent conditions so that achieve desired effects change clothes so that affect rice crop heat rug so that make someone sick treat nuclear material so that make abundant energy or cause mass destruction Increased opportunities Those that practice science in addition to magic have high status in their societies The rational method knowledge is gained by reason not by experiencing the world human reason as the only reliable guide so that knowledge Why? Because human senses are not trustworthy Philosophy often employs a rationalist or (logical) approach. Rene? Descartes (17th century philosopher) did not trust the human senses How do I know that the world exists at all? Do I even exist? so that solve this Descartes relied on what he called self-evident truths. Assumption 1: Something that thinks must exist Assumption 2: I am thinking Conclusion: I must exist Cogito ergo sum (I think therefore I am)
Rationalism is an important technique in consideration of understanding things that are outside the realm of science what is the meaning of life Rationalism is also important so that scientists our approach so that science must always follow a logical progression. However scientists remain empiricists rely on observations obtained by the human senses we have rules, though, so that attempt so that eliminate the hallucination or brain in the jar problems we will get so that these later. Also – rationalism can be an important first step in the development of scientific hypotheses in addition to theories Einstein?s Gedankens (thought experiments) Religion relies on forces superior so that one?s own as the basis of knowledge Rather than relying on human reason or human observation Knowledge comes through faith For many religions it is not up so that humans so that learn the nature of the world Keep in mind the big religious questions are often outside the realm of science We cannot run studies that will show that god does not exist, or support that god does exist
Laboratory Diagnosis Category of Sample Laboratory Diagnosis Microscopy Identification Light microscopy Fluorescent microscopy Electron microscopy Laboratory Diagnosis Viral isolation in addition to Identification Systems in consideration of the Propagation of Viruses Viral detection TCID50 (Tissue culture infective dose) Viral identification Laboratory Diagnosis Detection of viral proteins ( antigens in addition to enzymes) Laboratory Diagnosis Detection of viral genetic material Laboratory Diagnosis Serologic procedures Serologic procedures Viruses Diagnosed by Serology Prevention Possibilities in consideration of the Future Active immunization Overview of Active immunization Attributes of a good vaccine LIVE VACCINES Live attenuated organism Heterologous vaccines Live recombinant vaccines Attributes ? live vaccines Live attenuated organism Heterologous vaccines Live recombinant Advantages of Attenuated Vaccines 2-1 Advantages of Attenuated Vaccines 2-2 Killed vaccines Killed vaccines Advantages of inactivated vaccines Disadvantages of inactivated vaccines New Methods New Methods New Methods New Methods Single gene (subunit) – problems Single gene (subunit) in expression vector New Methods Chemically synthesized peptide New methods New Methods New Methods New Methods Vaccines DNA vaccines DNA Vaccines DNA Vaccines DNA Vaccines DNA Vaccines DNA Vaccines Adjuvants Adjuvants in common use Possible action modes of adjuvant Smallpox Smallpox Smallpox Smallpox polio Polio Vaccine Sabin Polio Vaccine Salk Polio Vaccine No reversion Polio Vaccine Measles Mumps rubella Hepatitis B Hepatitis A Yellow fever Rabies Influenza Varicella-Zoster virus Passive Immunisation Modes of immunization Natural Artificial Immunoglobulin ?Normal?Immune globulin Hyper-immune globulin – high titres of antibody so that particular viruses Antiviral Therapy Antiviral Therapy Antiviral chemotherapeutic Agents Targets in consideration of chemotherapeutic agents Diseases in consideration of which effective therapy is available Nucleotide analogues Interferon Chinese Herbs
Science Science is another way of knowing about the world. There are some basic characteristics that all sciences share All sciences make a few basic assumptions All sciences make a few basic assumptions 1. Order Events happen in regular patterns not chaotic Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947) ?faith in an organized universe is essential so that science. If there were no inherent order, there would be no point in looking in consideration of one. Therefore there would be no need so that develop methods in consideration of doing so.? Determinism 2. Determinism highly related so that the assumption of order Determinism means that events are caused by prior events (antecedent conditions). Determinism is often easier in consideration of people so that accept when they are thinking about the other sciences (like physics in addition to biology). why do I stick so that the ground (law of gravity)
Belief in determinism Belief in determinism? It can be more difficult when dealing alongside human behavior Humans tend so that believe in free will. But we are also often determinists Implications in consideration of taking a free will viewpoint? implications in consideration of taking a determinist viewpoint? Discoverability 3) Discoverability Assumption that we will eventually find the answers so that all scientific questions. B.F. Skinner was not much in consideration of the brain sciences Lack of technology so that study the brain He thought we would fully understand how the brain works in the future though. Restrictions on how we ask questions (or rules in consideration of hypothesis testing) 4) Restriction on how we ask questions All sciences agree that there are restrictions on how we try so that answer questions Our hypotheses in addition to methods must be empirical (empiricism) falsifiable Public Parsimonious Replicable considered tentative
empirical questions empiricism = the study of observable events in nature in an effort so that solve problems in contrast so that rationalism how many teeth does a horse have? This is why psychology is the study of human behavior, rather than the study of the human mind we can directly observe behavior. Scientists do, however, often make inferences about things we cannot directly observe through the observation of an observable event Do children attend more so that a television show if there is something going on that is directly relevant so that the plot Keep in mind we cannot directly observe gravity either falsifiable questions if not falsifiable ? not science oedipal complex evolution goes out on a limb 600 million rabbit skeleton would be a problem public Public questions near death experience Long term therapy vs. short term therapy
Scientists also prefer parsimonious explanations that can be replicated in addition to recognize that those explanations are tentative principle of parsimony scientists prefer explanations that make the fewest assumptions in short they prefer simpler theories. Why? Replication ? very important so that ensure findings are legit cold fusion Woo Suk Hwang cloning human stem cells why is replication so important? mistakes fraud
tentative explanations Scientists understand that their ideas may not hold up our findings are not proof we know we could be wrong Newton vs. Einstein flat, round, oblong, triangular earth we move toward a better understanding converging evidence Pulling things together Why is a scientific approach necessary? Clever Hans Facilitated Communication msnbc.msn /id/31388323/vp/34111007#34111007 Dr Nancy link levels of analysis description prediction explanation Different research methods are required.
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