Demographics Schizophrenia Psychopathology in addition to the Brain

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Demographics Schizophrenia Psychopathology in addition to the Brain

Eastern Mennonite University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Psychopathology in addition to the Brain Schizophrenia Comes from Greek words meaning ?split? in addition to ?mind? People alongside schizophrenia do NOT have split personalities ?split mind? refers so that the fact that people alongside schizophrenia are split off from reality in addition to can?t distinguish what is real from what is not real Demographics One of the most common mental illnesses Affects 1 % of the population Men show first signs in early 20?s while women in late 20?s US spends $32.5 billion per year

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Symptoms ?psychosis? ? psychotic element; state in which people cannot tell what is real in addition to what is not Delusions ? bizarre, false beliefs; paranoia, grandiosity Hallucinations ? unreal perceptions of environment; auditory, visual, olfactory, tactile More Symptoms Disorganized Thinking/Speech Negative Symptoms ? the absence of normal behavior Catatonia ? immobility in addition to ?waxy flexibility? Types of Schizophrenia Disorganized Schizophrenia Catatonic Schizophrenia Paranoid Schizophrenia

Brain in addition to Schizophrenia Larger than normal lateral ventricles ? part of the ventricular system; contain cerebrospinal fluid Causes of Schizophrenia: Genetics Twin studies have shown that tendency in consideration of both monozygotic twins so that develop schizophrenia is between 30 so that 50%; the tendency in consideration of dizygotic twins in addition to siblings so that develop schizophrenia is 15% Adoption Studies ? 13% of biological relatives of adoptees alongside schizophrenia had the disease, but only 2% of biological relatives of normal adoptees had schizophrenia Causes of Schizophrenia: Environment Family Stress Poor social interactions Infections or viruses at an early age Trauma at an early age Genetic makeup combines alongside non-genetic factors so that cause schizophrenia

Multidisciplinary Approach so that Sedation Goals in addition to Treatment Algorithms so that Treat Pain & Sedation Needs of PCTU Patients Connie Myres RN, MSN, CCRN & Sandra Merkel, MS, RN- BC Regine L. Caruthers, Pharm.D . & Robert Gajarski Jr, MD Purpose Background Methods Results Discussion Conclusion References Of the nurses surveyed, 80% have been ICU nurses greater than 6 years. This demonstrates that experienced nurses perceived benefits so that their skills related so that pain, agitation, sedation, in addition to withdrawal . The assessment in addition to treatment of agitation in addition to withdrawal continue so that be areas the PCTU nurses want so that be more proficient at

Causes of Schizophrenia: Neurotransmitters Dopamine Theory ? schizophrenia caused by an overactive dopamine system in the brain; dopamine is a neurotransmitter that allows nerve cells in the brain so that send messages so that each other; dopamine imbalance may affect the way a person?s brain can react so that stimuli Many drugs in consideration of schizophrenia block dopamine receptors Schizophrenia: Medication Antipsychotic medications ? drugs do not cure disease, but reduce symptoms Some drugs have Parkinson?s Disease-like side effects Counseling also helps Bipolar Disorder Characterized by changes in mood, behavior, in addition to energy levels Affects approximately 1.2% of the population First episode often occurs in adolescence in addition to can be triggered by a traumatic event; some people are symptom-free in between episodes

Symptoms: Mania phase Abnormally elevated mood Inflated self-esteem Reduced need in consideration of sleep Excessive talkativeness Racing thoughts Distractibility Activities done so that excess Pursuit of risky behavior or activities Symptoms: Depression Phase Mania can quickly in addition to without warning change so that depression/sadness Loss of interest Changes in appetite ? weight gain/loss Changes in sleep patterns Agitation Loss of energy Trouble concentrating/thinking Repeated thoughts of suicide/death Accompanying Symptoms Psychosis Delusions

Bipolar Disorder in addition to the Brain Examination of brain tissue after people alongside BD have died Brain imaging New theory ? mitochondrial malfunction Mitochondria ? vital organelle in consideration of energy production 2000 ? Kato, University of Tokyo ? based on abnormal brain energy metabolism in bipolar patients measured by brain scans in addition to mitochondrial depletion in autopsied bipolar brains; searched in consideration of mutant mitochondrial DNA ? two suspect genes March 2004, Archives of General Psychiatry, Christine Konradi – Harvard in addition to McLean Hospital – studied brain tissue in hippocampus in addition to found expression of genes that coded in consideration of mitochondrial proteins in bipolar patients decreased Famous People alongside BD Abraham Lincoln in addition to Theodore Roosevelt George Handel, Robert Schumann, Ludwig van Beethoven Leo Tolstoy, Virginia Woolf, Ernest Hemingway, Charles Dickens Sir Isaac Newton Patty Duke, Linda Hamilton, Jean-Claude van Damme Multiple Personality Disorder Presence of two or more distinct identities, each alongside its own unique, in addition to enduring way of relating so that the world or self At least two of these identities recurrently take control of the person?s behavior An inability so that recall important personal information so that an extent that is more than ordinary forgetfulness

History of MPD Virtually unknown 30 years ago ? became more common about 10 years ago Why? W. S. Taylor in addition to Mabel Martin in 1944 ? fewer than 100 documented cases 1985 so that 1995 ? abuot 40,000 new cases Why More Common? previously not diagnosed does mind choose pathology from options presented by culture? was called something different in the past ? came in form of dead relative possession in 19th century European culture Causes Childhood trauma ? usually sexual abuse before age 5 Experts believe alter arises so that protect person from overwhelming memories in addition to protect secrets from outsiders

Case Study: Eve Thigpen in addition to Cleckley, 1953 Rooted from traumatic events witnessed growing up in South during Depression Eve White ? wife in addition to mother; Eve Black ? party girl; Jane ? mature intellectual Total of 22 personalities Case Study: Sybil True name ? Shirley Mason Set the standard in consideration of MPD as a syndrome rooted in child abuse 16 separate personalities all having unique talents in addition to characteristics, such as piano playing or having British accent; some were male Dr. Wilbur ? Freudian psychologist 1998 ? several publications exposed Sybil case as scam Dr. Herbert Spiegel – only multiple personality in psychoanalytic setting; just extremely suggestible hysteric To ensure the book deal, Sybil had so that be multiple; Dr. Wilbur?s archives will be opened in 2005? MPD in Court Billy Mulligan ? accused of robberies in addition to rapes at OSU; by the time faced trial, 10 of 23 personalities surfaced; one alongside British accent, one could write fluent in Arabic, one was 16, one was 8? Juanita Maxwell ? bludgeoned elderly woman so that death alongside a lamp but had no memory of crime; went so that trial in addition to violent alter came out Critics say that vast majority of patients misdiagnosed, faked, or unconsciously created by clinician who makes diagnosis Problem: when evidence overwhelming against defendant, only way attorney can mitigate sentence is insanity defense Often very hard so that identify whether truly have disorder

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