DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE TRAINING PROGRAMS SYSTEMS OF TRAINING Isometric System Dynamic Constant External Resistance Variable
Roberts, Jack, Executive Producer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE TRAINING PROGRAMSA systematic program of exercise involving exertion of as long as ce against a load used to develop strength, endurance, in addition to /or hypertrophy of the muscular system.SYSTEMS OF TRAININGIsometricDynamic Constant External Resistance (isotonic): free weight, linear resistanceDynamic Variable Resistance: linear variable resistance, rotary variable resistanceIsokineticPlyometric: stretch-shortening cycleIsometric SystemIsometric limitation: difficult to determine if persons strength improves.Isometric benefits: works well in orthopedic in addition to physical therapy pinpoints an area of weakness.
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Dynamic Constant External ResistanceConcentric in addition to eccentric phases with each repetition using weight plates or exercise machines.Variable External Resistance: RotaryHeavy CamLight CamExternal resistance altered by use of irregularly shaped cam or pulley to match increases in addition to decreases in as long as ce capacity related to joint angle throughout a ROM.Isokinetic Training SystemIsokinetic requires a constant angular limb velocity.Exert maximal as long as ce throughout full ROM.Concentric only minimizes potential as long as muscle & joint injury.
Plyometric Training SystemTerm plyometric from Latin plyo + metric interpreted to mean measurable increases.Plyometric training movements make use of the inherent stretch-recoil characteristics of skeletal muscle in addition to neurological modulation via the myotatic reflex.The stretch-shortening cycle describes the sequence, eccentric-isometric-concentric muscle actions.Plyometric: stretch- shortening cyclePlyometric Training SystemPlyometric drill training incorporates body mass in addition to as long as ce of gravity to provide rapid pre-stretch or cocking phase, to activate the stretch reflex in addition to muscles natural elastic recoil elements.When stretching occurs rapidly, stored elastic energy in muscle fibers, in addition to initiation of myotatic reflex combine to produce a powerful concentric action.
Plyometric TrainingPlyometric TrainingSix classifications of lower extremity plyometric exercises:Jumps-in-placeSt in addition to ing jumpsMultiple hops in addition to jumpsBoundingBox drillsDepth jumpsPlyometric TrainingVery specific in nature but very broad in applicationFor lower extremities, designed to train athlete to develop either vertical or horizontal acceleration.Offensive lineman or crouch start: st in addition to ing long jump, double leg hops horizontal as long as ce.Basketball rebound or volleyball spike: depth jump skills vertical power.Medicine ball, kettleball, in addition to depth push up activities can train the upper extremities.
Plyometric Training SystemPROGRAM DESIGNNEEDS ANALYSISEvaluation of the SportMovement Analysis: What movement patterns in addition to muscles must be trainedPhysiological Analysis: What are needs as long as muscle strength, power, hypertrophy, in addition to enduranceWhat are the common sites as long as joint in addition to muscle injuryWhat other requirements such as speed, agility, flexibility in addition to cardiovascular endurance are needed
Muscle GroupsWhat muscle groups should be trained requires basic analysis of movement.Movement analysis includes examination of:Muscles Movement velocitiesJoint angles Forces involvedUnderst in addition to exactly what you are trying to mimic.Principle of specificity overriding rule. Muscle ActionMost activities in addition to resistance training programs use several types of muscle action (dynamic concentric, dynamic eccentric, in addition to isometric).Examples. Elite power lifters lower greater resistances slower than less competitive lifters.Wrestling involves many isometric holds.Muscle Physiologic ComponentDetermine magnitude of improvement needed as long as variables such as muscle strength, power, hypertrophy, endurance, balance, agility, speed, coordination, flexibility, in addition to body composition.Improvement in all these variables may not be needed in all cases.Examples. Sports that require high ratio of strength: mass or power: mass weight classes. Sports that benefit from body mass.
Primary Sites of InjuryPrehabilitation preventing initial injury by training the points in addition to muscles that are most susceptible to injury.Prevention of reinjury also an important goal.Resistance training may help prepare systems as long as more extensive repair activities needed as long as faster injury recovery.NEEDS ANALYSISAssessment of the AthleteTraining StatusPhysical TestingStrengthFlexibilityPowerSpeedMuscular enduranceBody compositionBASIC TRAINING PRINCIPLESSpecificityOverloadProgressive OverloadReversibilityTraits
ACUTE VARIABLESChoice of ExercisesResistance (Loading)RepetitionsSetsRest IntervalsFrequencyChoice of ExerciseSelect exercises that stress muscles & joint angles designated by needs analysis.Core exercises train prime movers in particular movement, are typically major muscle (i.e. chest, shoulder, hip or thigh) exercises, & involve two or more joints.Assistance exercises train predominantly one muscle group that aids in movement by prime movers.Choice of ExercisesStructural exercises emphasize loading the spine directly (e.g. back squat) or indirectly (e.g., power clean).Power exercise is a structural exercise that is per as long as med very quickly or explosively.
Basic ExercisesChest PressRow or PulldownOverhead Press or Lateral RaiseArm CurlTriceps ExtensionLeg PressLeg ExtensionLeg CurlAbdominal CurlLow Back ExtensionOrder of ExercisesLarge be as long as e smallMulti-joint be as long as e single-jointAlternate push-pullAlternate upper in addition to lowerWeak points be as long as e strong pointsOlympic be as long as e basic strengthPower-type firstMost intense to least intenseNormal alternate order is used initially, in addition to then if desired, a stacked order is gradually incorporated (among elite body builders as long as hypertrophy).Resistance
RepetitionsSetsSet SystemsSingle Set SystemMultiple Set SystemSuper Set System (2 sequential exercises that stress opposite)Compound Set (2 sequential stress same)Bulk SystemCheating SystemForced RepetitionFlushingPyramidNegativeRest-PauseSplitCircuitPeripheral Heart
Periodization SchemesClassical linear to elicit peak per as long as mance as long as a precise, narrow time.Reverse linear periodization (inverse) targets local muscular endurance.Undulating (nonlinear) enables variations in intensity & volume within a cycle. CompetitionsReferencesChu, Donald A. 1998. Jumping into Plyometrics, 2nd ed. Human Kinetics.McArdle, William D., Frank I. Katch, in addition to Victor L. Katch. 2000. Essentials of Exercise Physiology 2nd ed. Image Collection. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Plowman, Sharon A. in addition to Denise L. Smith. 1998. Digital Image Archive as long as Exercise Physiology. Allyn & Bacon.
Roberts, Jack Executive Producer
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